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below it. The river of Koonduz, in a far warmer country, freezes every year so as to admit of horses passing it, but its current is more sluggish. In Bactria there is considerable diversity of climate, arising from circumstances already mentioned (see para. 19.) The climate of Bulkh is perhaps the warmest ; summer and winter succeed one another by a very rapid transition, and both are severe. These circumstances coupled with the moisture of the air, render the place neither healthy nor agreeable, and the natives of Cabul had the greatest aversion to serving in Bulkh when that place was in reality, as now it is in name, under their monarchy; many of its villages, however, are healthy. Koonduz though low, moist, and warm like Bulkh is yet more healthy. The districts to the south and east are colder in various degrees. The lower part of the valley of Khost is warm, and no place in Bactria is so cold as Cabul. Shibirghan, Undukho, Mymuna, and Kuburmach are healthy, and their temperature somewhat less than that of Bulkh.
59. Chinese Toorkistan although in general more northerly than independent Toorkistan, has not a colder climate, but rather the contrary, for the inhabited places are for the most part in low plains. Kashghur is colder than Yarkund. The temperature very gradually declines as we proceed to the more northern parts. The Pamer is exceedingly cold, yet may be crossed in autumn. With the exception of Chitrul, already mentioned (see paragraph 55.) Kashkar is undoubtedly a cold country, but to what degree we cannot yet tell. All the Tibets have rigorous climates, considerably colder than Cabul, even in the cultivated vallies. Between the Tibets and Hindoostan, the Punjab and other countries to the south and south-west, there is every degree of temperature, from mountains clad in never melting snow, to low and sultry plains.
SECTION II.-Of Winds.
60. In most countries it requires the observation of many years to determine what winds on the whole are predominant, and in what seasons of the year; we are otherwise in danger of stating local and temporary phenomena as general and constant. In the total want, in the present case, of such records, and under the necessity, moreover, of relying on the testimony or rather opinion of others, who may not have considered the subject with the patience it requires, it must be expected that the present account shall be meagre, perhaps in many points erroneous.
61. Some facts however seem to be established on sufficient evidence. It may be asserted that in the whole of Toorkistan, Budukhshan, and the north in general, the prevailing wind is from the north. In Bokhara it blows with considerable violence in the signs Cancer, Leo, and Virgo; after three months cessation, it recommences, and blows, though with less vehemence, during Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces. These may with propriety be called midsummer and midwinter winds. The former are sometimes felt warm by day in Bokhara, the latter, when strong, are felt piercingly cold. Both vary from time to time in strength, blowing for seven to ten days with violence, and then remitting for nearly an equal time. In the wide space in which this northerly current prevails it may be supposed to have considerable variations in its direction, (for it need not be supposed to be always due north) strength, and other circumstances. It is not constant and strong in the west of Toorkistan, but it has occasionally given melancholy proofs of its power. It has submerged under sand the far greater part of the kingdom of Khwaruzm, and yearly curtails the habitable lands of Bokhara. The same evil consequences are not apprehended from the north winds in the quarter of Bulkh, yet even there they occasionally blow with great vehemence. In the war which Tymoor Shah waged in that country with the Oozbuks, there were six successive days in which these winds suspended all hostile operations. Budukhshan, except in some particular situations, has a still climate, by reason of the shelter afforded by its lofty mountains, and is not so breezy as even Cabul; the north winds however are there also the prevalent ones, though much diminished in their strength. It deserves remark, that the Persian word 'Shimal,' which properly means the north,' is in Toorkistan, Budukhshan, and the north in general familiarly understood by the signification of wind. In the Persian Gulph, the same denotes a blast. It is remarked in Bokhara that the south-east wind there, called 'Kypung,' is productive of great warmth, and when it occurs in the spring, the snow rapidly disappears. 62. If we pass from Toorkistan to Khoorasan we still find the same northern current to prevail in the western parts of that province-little change takes place in its direction, and even at Hirat it seems to be from nearly due north, but in longitudes more easterly its direct progress is opposed by the Paraparnisan mountains, which shelter that part of Khoorasan which lies to the south of them. At a moderate distance however from these mountains the current seems to recommence, though with diminished force and altered direction. It now inclines to the east of south, or even blows due east, as if to reach
the Afghan Khoorasan, it had been compelled to travel round the western end of the Paraparnisan range. In Candahar the direction of the midsummer winds is perhaps from the north-west, but at a considerable distance south from the Paraparnisan mountains the current resumes its force, and perhaps nearly returns to its former direction. In Seestan such is its force, that it has heaped up the sands of that country into waves; not a season passes but whole villages are buried under the sand, the inhabitants escaping with little beyond their lives, yet do they deem these winds a blessing. They moderate the heat, relieve them at times from the musquitos, and they turn their windmills. At Kilat of the Beeloches the midsummer winds are from the north, for this place is situated too far to the south to be effected by the Paraparnisan mountains.
63. Hirat lies open to the north, and if we except Seestan there is no part of Khoorasan where these winds blow with such vehemence as in its neighbourhood. It has a windy season of 120 days, which returns with such certainty, that relying on it they here use no watermills, but windmills only. These periodical winds seem to commence earlier in Hirat than in Bokhara, and in Seestan earlier still. In that part of Khoorasan which lies west of Hirat the summer winds though of considerable strength and regularity, are not relied on for grinding the whole of the crops, on the contrary watermills are commoner than windmills; in former times the latter were more used than now, as is proved by the ruins to be seen in the districts of Cabul, Muro, Zumundawur, in certain parts of the table land of Ghuznee, and other quarters where watermills only are now employed. This change of practice may have arisen from a change of opinion, watermills having been found more eligible in all but the most windy climates, as being oftener at command than the others; or it may be considered as one proof of what all the natives assert, that the seasons and weather have altered from what they were in former times.
64. I know not how far southward we can trace these northern and north-western winds, but in the eastern longitudes at least they do not extend to the Ocean. The wind there on the contrary, blows from the south during the greater part of summer. We can trace this wind as far as Buhawulpoor, in latitude 29° 22′, and perhaps a good deal further. This southerly wind blowing from the ocean, communicates to the climate of the nether Sindh an agreeable coolness. At Mooltan it shews itself rather in occasional blasts, than a constant current. By parity of reason these southerly winds may be supposed to extend a certain distance (varying in different longitudes with cir
cumstances) from the ocean into Bulochistan. But we have already seen (paragraph 62) that it does not reach Kilat, the latitude of which is not very different from that of Mooltan. In Jodhpoor it is said the west or north-west wind is the commonest in the spring and summer months, until the commencement of the periodical rains. In the upper Punjab also the winds are represented as being in the various seasons not very different from those of our Upper Provinces. In both countries clouds seem to assemble from easterly points (especially in the rainy season) and winds from westerly points shed their
65. The winter of 1808-9 was spent by the Cabul Mission chiefly at Beekaneer, between that place and the entrance into the hills beyond the Indus. It was remarked as being singularly still; and generally it may be asserted, that in all these countries the winter is calmer than the summer, the night also is usually calmer than the day. Travellers tell us that such is the cold of the Pamer in the autumn-the season in which it is most commonly passed-that did not the wind die away by night, this route would not be practicable. As before observed the mid winds of Toorkistan are not so strong as the midsummer, and in Khoorasan they are not always traceable. In Candahar, and some other situations, the month of October is more remarked as windy, than the depth of winter. The cold winds of that month, or rather of the sign Scorpio, which begins the 20th of October, strip the trees of their foliage. The same sign of the zodiac is windy in our Upper Provinces and in Peshawur, and in both cases it blows from a westerly point. In Cabul also this season is generally windy, as also in the sign Pisces.
66. Cabul however though at most seasons breezy, is in none remarkably windy, the north and west winds chiefly prevail. The same positions are, I presume, true of Ghuznee, which, however, has less shelter. Kushmeer has been already mentioned as possessing a still climate. The stagnation of air is sometimes very disagreeable, especially to those who have been accustomed to the free circulation in Khoorasan. Other places there are remarkable for continual wind, a circumstance owing to their situation between hills, which by confining the current of air accelerates it. Such is Jummoo, built not far from the left of the Chunab, and some other places of less note. Jellalabad and Koonur have never-ceasing winds, chiefly from the west. These threaten to bury under sand the good lands of the former. In Peshawur and Bajour the prevailing wind during the whole of the summer is said to be the east, and the observations made during the stay of
the embassy in that country correspond to this opinion. In the winter the chief winds in Jellalabad, Koonur, Bajour, and Peshawur, is the west, and next to it the north, which in Bajour is in that season productive of great cold. In Peshawur and Bajour, as in our provinces, are occasional blasts during the spring and summer months; in the former place they blow from the west and south-west.
67. Even in Bokhara hot winds are known, but they are confined to a few weeks in the year, and a few hours in the day, and altogether are little regarded. This is equally true of those in Hirat, but the hot winds of Seestan are severe. Those of Peshawur have been already mentioned (see paragraph 49.) Jellalabad, which on the whole has a cooler climate, has severer hot winds than Peshawur, because of its lying to the west, or leeward of the Bedoulut hills (see paragraph 50.) The wind from them is moderated in its bad qualities before it reaches the city of Jellalabad. Within the tract in which it is generated it is a true Simoom or pestilential wind, and many instances are given of its proving fatal to travellers. On the night of the 21st June. the Cabul Mission experienced a wind of the most intolerable heat ; it blew from the low hills on which Attock is situated, then bearing south. The hottest winds appear to proceed from, or blow over, low hills, whose rocks and stones acquire a higher temperature than the soil of the plains. In the warm parts of Bulochistan, hot winds of very great severity blow. Instances are few of their proving fatal, but not unfrequently they scorch the shoulders and backs of travellers.
SECTION III. Of the Rains.
68. In India from the northern mountains to Cape Comorin, the grand rains are those which beginning about midsummer, continue to the middle or end of autumn. The monsoon of the Coromandel Coast forms an exception, caused by peculiar circumstances. The rains, so called by way of eminence, on an average of seasons begin in Calcutta in the first week of June, in Futthgurh about the 20th of that month, and in the intermediate situations they are later, according as the place is situated more or less to the west of Calcutta. This rule is true in a majority of places and seasons. In our progress westward, it is also found that the rains are more scanty. The annual inches of water in Calcutta, are thrice those in Delhi. It is only in the lower parts of Bengal, that in the same season rains fall in the four successive Hinduwee months, Usarh, Sawun, Bhador, Koonar, of