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same on all points of the globe; in some years the year will be an intercalar one for places of great longitude, but not for places of lesser longitude, in which the intercalar year is only to come on in the following year; this is evident to all persons of sound understanding. But to go on with the subject, if you add to the fundament of fundaments the sum of 172 you obtain the fundament of the constellations of the zodiacus; if this sum be greater then the number of the solar year you subtract it, and the remainder is the fundament. For this operation there is no regard for the intercalar year; you subtract the fundament of the constellations from the broken lunar year, and if this cannot be, you subtract it from the solar year, add what remains to the broken lunar year, subtract from the whole the solar year, and obtain by this operation in the remainder the number of the days of the zodiacal year; you assign to each of the twelve constellations its number of days, and the sun shall be in the degree of the constellation in which your calculation ends, the number of the degrees are
For example, if you wish to know in which degree the sun is to be found in the year 961, you proceed in the following way. We know by what has been said that the fundament of fundaments in this year is 288; add to it 172 it makes 460, subtract from it the number of the solar year, 365 days, there remain 95, which you subtract from the broken lunar year if you can; as it is impossible in this year to throw away the first of Ramazan, you make the subtraction so that one month is perfect and the other deficient, and counting also the first of Ramazan you obtain 237; from this you subtract the abovementioned 95, there will remain 142; of this sum you assign 31 degrees to Aries, 31 to Taurus, 31 to Gemini, 32 to Cancer, and the remaining 17 to Leo, so that the sun is to be found in the seventeenth degree of Leo; the constellation of Cancer has in our days 32 degrees,
نصاب Aboo Nassr Farahi mentions in the ابو نصر فراهي although
Nessab the following distinction:
XXXI and XXXI, XXXI, XXXII, XXXI, XXXI, are six months XXX, XXX, XXIX and XXIX, XXX, XXX, are the short months
لا ولا لا لب را ولا لا شش ماه ست لل كط و كط لل شهور كونه است
But this agrees with the time when the sun in its greatest height is in Gemini, now the sun being in its greatest height in Cancer, this has
32 degrees, which will change in future time so that the constellation wherein the sun is in its greatest height is always to be of 32 degrees; be it known also that in the first climate summer falls in the signs of Aries, Taurus, Gemini; autumn in those of Cancer, Leo, Virgo ; winter in those of Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius; spring in Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces; in these parts, that is in the northern ones, it is the contrary. If you wish to know in which of the 28. lunar stations the sun rises, you proceed as follows;-add to the number of degrees in which the sun is found that day, the number 8; give to each station 13, except Spica to which you give 14, and if the year be an intercalar one you give also 14 to Resha (ẞ in the Andromeda); the beginning of numbering is in our times el Awwa (B,y,s,de in Virgo) because the beginning of Awwa falls in the 22nd degree of Spica, and the end of it in the beginning of Libra, that is to say the beginning of it retards eight degrees.
But the stations of the moon proceed with the eighth sky in 70 years one degree, according to which you must operate. Where the number beginning from el Awwa B,y,s,de in Virgo terminates at sunset,
there the station of the moon is rising; for example-if you wish to know which station of the moon is rising at sunset on the first of Ramazan in the year 961, you find the sun in the seventeenth degree on the 142nd day of the year of constellations. Add to it the number 8, you get 150; begin then from el-Awwa, the 13th station, counting for each station 13, but to Spica 14; six days to the 24th station ẞ and in Aquarius; six days having elapsed since the rise of this station, called Saadessofood, so that there remain nearly seven days. Be it known also that the beginning of el-Awwa at the end of the 23rd degree of Spica, and its retard of eight degrees from the beginning of Libra, happened in the year of the Alexandrine era 1749, that is to say in the time when the tables of Ulagbigh were made. This book has been composed in the 1865th year of the era of Alexander (the Sileucian) 1553 s. E. so that 116 years have elapsed between. In this case each station has moved nearly two degrees in our time, and it is therefore necessary to add to the number of the solar degrees the number six; seventy years hence when the stations shall have proceeded one degree more, the number five must be added and so on till the beginning of the 13th station (el-Awwa) shall come to the beginning of Libra, in which time no number shall be added; when afterwards the end of Isarfa (the 12th station) shall come to the beginning of Libra the number 12 must be added, and you
will begin then to count from the beginning of Isarfa, and in the same way you proceed through the other stations.
SECTION V. Of the (Romi) Roman year.
It begins with the first day of Teshreen ewd; be it known that the day of the week with which it begins precedes the day of the week with which the following year is beginning; for example, if the first day of the year be Sunday, the first day of the next year will be Monday. The fourth part of a day, (which is exceeding every year) gives in four years the intercalar day. In this year the day of the week of the next year is two days later, on Tuesday. It is also to be observed that even in the Roman year the seasons must change in the course of time, which the greatest part of men are unaware of: so in the course of time the months of spring must become those of Autumn: because according to the tables of Ooloozbey, there are wanting to the fourth part of the day forming the intercalar, one 28 to the second, and 40 to the third. But as in the Roman years a fourth part is counted, the above said deficiency makes in 123 years one day to be added, the cause of it is that the fourth part of a day counted each year is not exactly a fourth, but deficient; which implies the necessity of adding one day more to the above mentioned space of years. For example, the Nawroozi Sultauni falling now on the 11th Adas, that is to say March, shall fall after the above mentioned time on the 10th, then on the 9th, and make the four for some calendarian works. The day of Nawroozi Sultauni is found mentioned on the 13th of Adas. This book has been translated in the year 1865 of the Sileucian era; the difference since the establishment of that era makes 14 days at the time of its introduction, the beginning of spring; that is, the entrance of the sun in Aries was on the 26th of March; but as a long time has elapsed since people are in general not aware of this era, Nasicreddin Toosi (the great astronomer) calls in his treaty celebrated by its name Si (Thirty) the Roman year the veritable one, but it is not so, the veritable one is the year of constellations commonly called the Djelatian year. It is a curious fact that the great astronomers Mirza Ooloozbey, Mir Ghaiaseddin, Djemsheed, Hazizade Koomi and Molla Ali Kooshdji (on whom be God's mercy!) call in the new Ephemerides the Greek year the solar one, which is a negligence. On the 7th February the first kindling spark ? of spring is falling; on the 4th the second spark; on the 21st the third, after which the cold of winter is broken; on the 26th is the cold day of
the old woman; on the 18th Agar the beginning of warm winds; on the 19th July the first canicular day, after which the heat is broken. This is the way in which our astronomers fix their days, but with no reason, because they ought to fix them according to the seasons, and not according to the Roman year, which is not stable.
The way of knowing the Roman year is to add to the fundament of fundaments 10, the sum gives the fundament of the Roman year, subtract it from the broken lunar year, the remainder gives the days of the Roman year, the names of the (Roomic) year are with the number of days as follows,
Teshreen I. 31. Teshreen, I. 30. Kanoon I. 31. Kanoon II. 30 and Shooba I. 28. Arer 31. Nisan 30. Ayar 31. Haziran 30. Temooz 31. Ab 31. Eilool 30.
If you wish to know on which day of the Greek year falls the first of Ramazan, add to the fundament of fundaments 288 the number 16, it gives 298, subtract it from the broken lunar year, which not being possible as the number is 237, you must add the number of the solar year, which makes 602, from which you subtract the fundament of the Roman (Greek) year; the remainder is 304, which you distribute according to the months, and you will find the day to be the last of August. For the Roman (Greek) year the birthday of Jesus, the days of Khizr (St. George's) and Kasim (St. Demitrius') fall for ever on the same day, but not so the Lent and Easter; the Lent falls in the simple years between the 2nd of February and 8th of March, and begins from the Monday nearest; the number of its days is 48, the 49th Sunday being Easter Sunday; if Lent begins on the 8th of March, Easter falls on the 25th of April, that is to say two days later than Khidhi Elias (St. George's); if the Lent begins on the 2nd of February, and intercalar years on the 3rd of February; Easter falls on the 22nd March, 32 days before Khidhi Elias: the greatest distance between the two being 35 days.
SECTION VI. Of the Coptic year.
Add to the fundament of fundaments 342, the sum is the fundament of the Coptic year; subtract it from the broken lunar year, and the rest will give the days of the Coptic year, the months of which are, Thom 30, Poazhi 30, Hathor 30, Kihall (Khiak) 30, Tybi 30, Emsheer (Makhir) 30, Bermohat (Thamenoth) 30, Birmoode (Tharmatic) 30, Tasheesh (Takhon) 30, Tayni 30, Epiphi 30, Mesori 30. If, for example, you wish to know on which day of the Coptic year falls the first of Ramazan of the year 961, add to the
fundament of fundaments of this year, which is 288, the number 342, subtract the sum 830 from the lunar broken year, which not being possible, you must add to it the solar year; the remaining 285 is the fundament of the Coptic year; subtract it if possible from the lunar year, and if it be not possible add to it the solar year; the number of the broken solar year is 237, the sum gives 802; subtract from it the Coptic fundament 165; the remaining 337 distribute amongst the above said months, giving to each 30 days, you will find the first Ramazan to fall on the 7th of Mesori.
SECTION VII. Of the Persian year.
The beginning of it is the Yazdjerdian Nawrooz; be it known that this Nawrooz falls regularly in the next year on the day of the week next to that with which it begun in the former, so if it begins this year with Monday it begins next with Tuesday, because there is no intercalar year in the Yazdjerdian cyclus. The way, of knowing it, is to throw away the hundred and odd number of the year of the Hedjra, and to multiply the rest with 11. Keep what you obtain and multiply it again with 11: add to one of these two products 53, and call this sum Madjmoo, divide the second with 30, subtract the quotient Madjmoo, from the number which remains beside; if the quotient is less than 19, you do not mind it, if it is greater than 19 you add it to the quotient, subtract the rest of the Madjmoo from the broken lunar year, and if this is not possible add to it the solar year; from the sum subtract the Madjmoo, the remaining number gives the day of the Narrooz. For example-if you wish to know on which day of the Yesdedjerdran year falls the first of Ramazan of the year 961, you throw away the hundred and the odd number of the years of the Hedjra, multiply the remaining 80 with 11, which gives 660, add to the first 660 the number 93 which makes 713, and call this Madjmoo, divide the second 660 with 30, the quotient of which is 22; subtract this from the Madjmoo, and you will obtain 891; subtract of this the solar year and you will get 326. As it is impossible to subtract this sum from the broken lunar year you must add to this the solar, which makes 602, from which you subtract 326, the remaining 276 are the days of the Yesdedjerdran year, which you distribute according to the months Farwardeen 30, Ardebehesht 30, Khorded 30, Tir 30, Mordad 30, Shahirwer 30, Mihs, 30 Aben, 30, Axes, 30, Dei 30, Rahman 30, Isfendarmed 30; and you will find the first Ramazan to fall on the tenth of Dei.