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whom their concerns, especially in the Opium department, are managed. The cultivation of the Poppy might be very much increased, and the north eastern parts of the district are peculiarly adapted for its production ; but the expenses attending the cultivation are heavy, and now that Sugar yields so profitable a return, and is so much in demand, it is not probable that the production will be greatly increased at the present price. The cultivation is also generally unpopular ; the Zemindar is jealous of his Keorees taking advances from the Opium department, because it renders them, in some measure, independent of him, and introduces into the village another authority than his own. The Keorees themselves would like the employment, if they were always sure of protection from the exactions of the inferior officers of the department. This of course depends upon the nature and vigilance of the superintendence exercised over the department. At present the organization is far more complete and efficient than it has been for some time.

12th. The manufactures of the district are a considerable source of wealth to it. These consist mainly of Cotton cloths, but some Silk goods are also made, and others, containing a mixture of Cotton and Silk, commonly called Tussur. The demand for these goods used to be very great, but is now much diminished by the competition of English goods. English twist is also very extensively introduced into the market, and has in a great measure supplanted the use of the native thread. This again has much injured the quality of the cloth, for though the English is more regular and even in its texture, it is far less durable than the country thread. The Cloth is made at looms erected in the private houses of the weavers, who are congregated in great numbers at some of the principal towns, such as Moobaruck. poor, Kopah, and Mhow, and are also to be found in many large villages in all parts of the district. They are all Mahomedans, a weak and sickly looking people, but mostly possessing fire arms, and very liable to be excited to riot by any thing which affects their religious prejudices. They have of late years been particularly turbulent, in consequence of the spread amongst them of the tenets of Seyud Uhmud. This sect is especially opposed to the ceremonies of the Mohurrum, and the several superstitions which characterize the prevailing belief of the Sheeas; whilst, by its general intolerance, it tends to embroil the whole body of Mussulmans with the Hindoo population.

13th. Every loom pays a small acknowledgment to the Zemindar,

under the title of Kurgahee (from Kurga, a Joom). This is commonly called a tax, but it is more properly a rent, or equivalent for permission to reside on the estate, and obtain the protection of its owner. The payment is very trifling, generally of a few annas on each loom in the year; it is highly prized by the Zemindars, and cheerfully paid by the weavers, when no attempt is made to raise the rate, or to infringe upon the established custom regarding it.

14th. It is calculated that there are 13,682 looms in the district, of which 10,561 are for the manufacture of Cotton, and 3,121 of Silk and Tussur goods. These looms probably produce 10,00,000 of pieces in the year, which may be valued at 23,00,000, and are supposed to yield a net profit of nearly 4,00,000 to the manufacturers. The particulars of this estimate, also furnished to me by the kindness of Mr. Montgomery, will be found in the Appendix (B.) It is not likely to be too high, for the value of the exports in Cloth are supposed to be about 10,00,000 rupees, which would leave only 13,00,000 rupees worth to clothe 8,00,000 of people. None but the more wealthy classes wear any other than the manufactures of the district.

15th. It is not easy to account for the existence of these manufactures, so far inland, and in a country where no Cotton whatever is produced Their rise was probably occasioned by peculiar encouragement afforded by former Governments; and in Mhow, tradition especially states this to have been the case, when the little Pergunnah formed the appanage of one of the Begums of the imperial house of Delhi, in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jehan. Probably, too, the superior fertility of the soil, the uniformity of the climate, and the exemption of the country from the severe droughts which occasionally lay waste other districts, has contributed to this. The great variation of the price of food in the large grain districts, would tend to discourage the formation of a manufacturing community. The habits which would be naturally engendered in a year of plenty would necessarily cause ruin and emigration in a year of local scarcity. On the other hand, a district which is always dependent on commerce for the support of its redundant population, would never suffer much distress, except in a season of general famine, when the whole country would be reduced to equal misery and destitution.

16th. There is not much trade passing through the district. The Goggra and Goomtee on either side of it, and the Ganges at no great distance, are the great channels of commerce. Some Salt finds its way across from the Ganges to the Goggra, and grain is carried back in return, but this is mostly intended to facilitate the supply of the local

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wants of intermediate towns. A considerable quantity of Cotton however passes from Mirzapore, and the markets near Allahabad to Goruckpore, and Nipal through Jaunpore and Azimgurh.

17th. The chief Exports and Imports of Goods may be roughly stated thus, though the latter are evidently much underrated-bullion, in shape of cash remittances by the Government, is not mentioned.

Exports.
Cotton and Silk Piece Goods (entirely in hands of
Native traders),

.. 10,00,000 Opium,

5,09,700 Indigo,

2,70,000 Sugar exported by Europeans,

19,00,000 Ditto ditto by Natives,

3,50,000

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Total Rs. ..

40,29,700

Imports.
Raw Cotton,
Miscellaneous Spices, &c.
Grain,

2,15,000

90,000 9,40,000

Total Rs. .. 12,45,000

18th. The total Receipts and Disbursements of the Government Treasury in the whole district (including Pergunnahs Secunderpore, and Badaon of the province of Benares) are Rs. 19,64,150, thus,

Receipts.
Land Revenue,

n. 14,77,150 Stamps,

35,000 Abkaree,

72,000 Miscellaneous,

3.80,000

Total Rs. 19,64,150

Disbursements.
Local Expenditure,
By Bills,
Transported to Benares,

5,63,000 8,27,150 5,74,000

Total Rs. 19,64,150

cane.

maunds per

per maund.*

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APPENDIX (A.)
Sugar cultivation in the District of Azimgurh.

The prices vary with the Season and Markets.
Second boiling of
Average produce First boiling of
No. of Beegahs of
Name

Goor and Molas-
Of these are Bee- of Goor about 12 Goor gives an

About 45 per
Cultivated land

Goor being 2-12

Second quality of of gahs of Sugar Ghazeepore

ses gives about in the Pergun

average 25 per

cent. of Mo

per maund the
Cost of Goor at
Value of Molasses

Profit and Loss.

Sugar should Pergunnah.

lasses re10 per cent. of

cent. Ist qualinahs.

Ist quality Su

2-12 2nd quality

fetch 7-8 per per

about 7 Rupees Beegah.

mains. ty Sugar.

maund.

gar should fetch Sugar.

10 Rs per Gha

Ghazeepore

maund.

Zeepore maund.
Beegbas. B. D. Beegabs. B. D. Maunds P. C. Maunds P. C. Maunds P. C. Maunds S. C. Rs. As. Gs. Rs. As. Gs. Rs. As. Gs. Rs. As. Gs.

Cost of Goor, ..

7,00,809 0 12 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

42,048 8 16 1 Nizamabad, 2,12,366 7 0 21,236 12 15 2,54,839 260 63,709 36 8 25,483 38 10 1,14,677 33 12 7,00,809 0 12 6,37,099 2 0 1,91,129 11 17 | 1,14,677 13 10

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

6,37,099 2 0 0 7,42,857 9 8 1 Ditto 2d ditto,

1,91,129 11 17 2 8,28,288 13 17 2 Net profit Co's. Rs.

85,371 4 9 1 Cost of Goor,

5,80,949 5 4 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

34,856 15 3 2 Mahomedabad, 1,36,327 0 0 17,694 10 10 2,11,254 12 0 5,21,813 23 0 21,125 17 3 95,064 17 7 5,80,949 5 4 5,28,135 12 0 1,58,440 11 13 95,064 6 19

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

5,28,135 12 0 0 6,15,806 4 7 2 Ditto 2d ditto,

1,58,440 11 13 13 6,86,576 7 13 l Net profit Co's. Rs...

70,770 3 5 3 Cost of Goor,

28,590 6 0 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

1,715 6 15 2 Mownat Bhunjun, 8,663 13 0 866 7 10 10,396 200 2,599 5 0 1 1,039 26 0 4,678 17 0 28,590 6 01 25,991 4 0 7,797 6 0 4,678 6 16

Price of lst quality Sugar,

25,991 4 0 0 30,305 12 15 2 Ditto 2d ditto,

7,797 6 0 0 33,783 10 0 0 Net profit Co's. Rs...

3,482 13 4 2 Cost of Goor,

4,31,930 6 8 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent, for 6 months,

25,913 13 19 1 Mahole, 1,69,118 0 0 1 13,088 16 0 1,57,065 24 0 39,266 16 0 15,706 22 61 70,679 20 13 4,31,930 6 8 3,92,664 0 0 1,17,799 3.4 70,679 8 6

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

3,92,664 0 0 0 4,57,846 4 7 1 Ditto 2d ditto,

1,17,799 3 4 1 5,10,463 3 4 1 Net profit Co's. Rs...

52,616 14 17 0 Cost of Goor,

3,30,599 5 16 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

19,835 15 5 0 Suggree, 1,07,135 8 0 10,018 3 5 1,20,217 380 30,054 19 8 12,021 31 13 54,098 3 2 3,30,599 5 16 3,00,544 14 0 90,163 7 8 54,098 1 5

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

3,00,544 14 0 0 3,50,435 5 1 0 Ditto 2d ditto,

90,163 7 8 3 13,90,708 5 8 3 Net profit Co's. Rs...

40,273 0 7 3 Cost of Goor,

1,53,638

12 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

9,218 4 12 0 Deogaon,

95,645 2 0
4,655 14 0 55,868 16 0 13,967 4 0 5,586 33 10 25,140 31 4 1,53,638 1 12 1,39,671 0 0 41,901 4 17 25,140 12 10

Price of 1st quality Sugar,

1,39,671 0 0 0 1,62,856 6 4 0 Ditto 2d ditto,

41,901 4 17 2 1,81,572 4 17 2 Net profit Co’s. Rs...

18,715 14 13 2 Cost of Goor,

1,27,818 14 8 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent for 6 months,

7,669 2 18 3 Cheriakote, 38,377 0 0 3,873 6 0 46,479 24 0 11,619 36 0 4,647 38 61

20,915 32 13 1,27,818 14 8 1,16,199 0 0 34,859 11 4 20,915 13 2

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

1,16,199 0 0 0 1,35,488 1 6 3 Ditto

1 2d ditto,

34,859 11 4 1 1,51,058 11 4 Net profit Co's. Rs...

15,570 9 17 2 Cost of Goor,

53,530 15 4 0

5,211 13 18 2

Interest on this at 12 per cent, for 6 months, Kurriat Mittoo,....

16,221 12 0

1,622 30
79,465 320 4,866 18 0 1,946 23 3 8,759 24 6 53,530 15 4 48,664 8 0 14,599 5 11 8,759 9 15

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

48,664 8 0 0 56,742 13 2 2 Ditto 2d ditto,

14,599 5 ll 1 63,263 13 11

1 Net profit Co's. Rs...

6,521 0 8 3 Cost of Goor,

1,16,194 10 8 0

6,971 10 17 1

Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months, Belhabans,.... 35,210 10 15 3,521 1 0 42,252 24 0 10,563 6 0 19,013 26 13 1,16,194 10 8 1,05,631 8 0 31,689 7 4 19,013 10 14

Price of lst quality Sugar,

1,05,631 8 0 0 1,23,166 5 5 1 Ditto 2d ditto,

31,689 7 4 11,37,320 15 4 1 Net profit Co's. Rs...

14,154 9 19 0 Cost of Goor,

1,88,144 8 16 0

11,288 10 15 0

Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months, Ghosee, 75,843 13 0 5,701 70 1,68,416 8 0 17,104 2 0 1.6,841 24 122 30,787 11 9 1,88,144 8 16 1,71,040 8 0 51,312 27 30,787 4 12

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

1,71,040 8 0 0 1,99,433 3 11 0 Ditto

0 2d ditto,

51,312 2 7 0 2,22,352 10 Net profit Co's. Rs...

22,919 6 16 0 Cost of Goor,

74,167 8 0 0

4,450 0 16 0

Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months, Nuthoopoor, 24,981 8 8 2,247 10 0 26,970 0 0 6,742 20 0 2,697 0 0 12,136 20 0 74,167 8 0 67,425 0 0 20,227 8 0 12,136 8 0

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

67,425 0 0 0 78,617 8 16 0 Ditto 2d ditto,

20,227 8 0 0 87,652 8 0 0 Net profit Co’s. Rs...

9,034 15 4 0 Cost of Goor,

1,22,075 4 0 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

7,324 5 18 0 Tilheenee, 72,475 30 3,699 50 44,391 0 0 11,097 30 0 4,439 40 19,975 38 0 1 1,22,075 4 0 1,10,977 80 33,293 4 0 19,975 15 4

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

1,10,977 8 0 0 1,29,399 9 18 0 Ditto 2d ditto,

33,293 4 0 0 1,44,270 12 0 0 Net profit Co's. Rs...

14,871 2 2 Cost of Goor,

1,30,508 6 8 0 Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,

7,830 8 1 1 34,631 15 0 3,954 16 0 47,457 24 0 11,864 16 0 4,745 30 6 21,355 36 12 1,30,508 6 8 1,18,644 0 0 35,593 3 2 21,355 14 14

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

1,18,644 0 0 0 138,338 14 91 Ditto 2d ditto,

35,593 3 2 2 1,54,237 3 2 1 Net profit Co's. Rs...

15,898 4 13 1 Cost of Goor,

96,270 1 4 0

5,776 3 19 3

Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months, Gopalpoor,...... 26,949 7 0 2,917 5 10 35,007 12 0 8,791 33 0 3,500 29 3 15,753 11 6 96,270 1 4 87,518 4 0 26,255 7 11 15,753 4 11

Price of Ist quality Sugar,

87,518 4 0 0 1,02,046 5 3 3 Ditto

1 2d ditto,

26,255 7 11 1 1,13,773 11 11 -Net profit Co's. Rs...

11,727 6 7 2 Cost of Goor,

2,54,719 15 16 0 Included

15,283 3 5 2

Interest on this at 12 per cent. for 6 months,
Atrowleea, ..

in
Tilhenee. S
7,718 15 15 92,625 18 0 23,156 14 8 9,262 21 121, 41,601 18 12,54,719 15 16 2,31,563 100 69,469 1 7 41,681 7 4

Price of lst quality Sugar,

2,31,583 10 0 0 2,70,003 3 1 2 Ditto 2d ditto,

69,469 1 7 03,01,032 11 7

31.029 8 5 2

Net profit Co's. Rs. Total,.... 10,54,301 19 3 1,02,725 13 5 1 12,32,707 38 0 3,08,176 39 8 1 1,23,270 31 13

Total,.... 4,12,957 2 11 1

* The price obtained for the Molasses is suffi-
5,54,718 23 233,89,946 13 6' 30,81,769 14 0 9,24,530 15 8 5,54,718 9 5

cient to meet all the expences of the manufac-
ture, and to cover the Interest on stock and its
wear and tear.

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Kowreea,

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APPENDIX (B.)

Statement of Cloth, 8c. manufactured during the year 1836 in the District of Azimgurh.

Total Pieces and the Value,

No. of Silk Pieces prepared in the year.

No. of pieces prepared in which there is a mixture of silk and thread,

termed by the Natives Tusser.

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Total value.

Total value.

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Profit.

Profit.

Profit.

Total.

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Rs.As. Gs.Cs.

Rs

Rs.As. Gs. Cs.

Rs.As. Gs.Cs.

Rs.As. Gs. Cs.

Rs.As. Gs. Cs.

Rs.As. Gs. Cs.

19,209 8 16 0 8,434 4 0 0 2,34,576

2 14 0 0/6,38,406 0 0

6,04,580 13 12 033,825 2 8 0 5,96,628' 14,07,509 11 4 0 12,08,563 0 0 01998.96

7,41,459 14 8 0 5,84,772 9 12 0 1,56,687 4 16 0 6,768 4 1 7 0 27,643 12 16 0

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21,816

43,917 0 0 0

32,873 8 0 0 11,043

18,720

1,153 8 0 0

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38

9,282 0 0 0

2,544

3,714

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3,096 0 11 2 1 5,208 1 5 18 1

2,151 0 0 0 7,116 0 0 0 30,294 0 0 0

5,004 0 0 0

2 3 13 3 41,766 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 5,880 0 0 0 1 15 7 0 5,208 0 0 0 2 3 4 0f 54,726 0 0 0

31,720 0-0 0 10,016 0 0 0 4,278 0 0 0 1,602 0 0 0 3,906 0 0 0 1,302 0 0 0 42,180 0 0 0 12,546 0 0 0

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2,616

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9978 0 0 2,112 0 0 0 9,687 0 0 0 16,078 8 0 0 7,558 2 10 0 5,402 11 0 0

Atrowleea,..

25,416

23,092 35,502 0 0 0 64,742 1,04,322 0 0 0 21,828 27,074 0 0 0

20,607 0 0 0 33,517 8 0 0 19,515 13 10 0

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713 39,336 1 4 3 2

408

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27,074 0 0 0

352

352 21,828 1 3 3 2

44,292

Mahole,

75,769 8 0 0

24,513 0 0 0 10,99 75,697 8 0 0 28,624 19,515 13 10 07,538 9 70,366 13 0 0 5,402 49,913 12 8 0 7,644 0 56,249 12 8 0 10,812 0 16,621 00 04,08300

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Deogaon,

44,292 1 11 7 1 4,656 1 3 15 0

70,366 13 01 49,913 12 8 0 29,415 12 0 0

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57,557 12 8 0

Suggree,

7,611 0 0 0 5,989 0 0 0

3,168

3 0 0 0 9,504 0 0 0 6,336 0 0 0 3,168 0 0 0

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Ghose,

16,584

493 22,281 1 9 1 1
196 16,584 1 3 19 3

4,083 0 0 0

20,694 0 0 0 2,154 0 0 0

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20,694 0 0 0

Soorooj poor,

16,621 0 0 0 1,776 0 0 0

1,752

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378 0.00

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Chowkesur,

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0

291

18,480 0 0 0

14,843 4 0 0

14,813 4 0 0 3,636 12 78,365 6 8 0 12,150

3,636 12 0 0 3,078 4 12 01

291 14,208 1 4 16 1
478 18,864 1 8 0 0

31,1041

Nuthoopore,
Cheriakote,

2 0 0 0 62,208 0 0 0 53,136 0 0 0 9,072 0 0 0 49,968

90,515 15 0 0

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0 781 5,616 1 8 0 0
27 1,744 1 8 0 0

2 0 0 0
14 0 0

8 0
8 2,587) 60,268

4 0
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1,744 2,916 0 0 0 2,633 0 0 0 60,896 3,20,068 0 0 0 2,43,208 0 0 0 76,860 01

216 0 0 0

628 2 4 0 0 1,423 0 0 0 1,207 0 0 0

76,644 0 0 0

3,18,645 0 0 0 2,42,001 0 0 0

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27,613 12 16 0

14,25,543 9 16 0 11,25,082 6 18 0 3,00,461 2 18 0 6,768

19,209 8 16 08,434 4 0 0 3,18,772

8,19,121 0 0 0 7,47,343 13 12 0 71,777 2 8 0 9,99,436) 22,72,308 6 12 of 18,91,635 13 6 0 3,80,672 91

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