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of moderate depth, but the water sometimes brackish. Towards the Indus the quality of the soil and water improves, but the country is still sandy. Mukulwad, on the other hand, beyond the Indus, is a stiff and hard clay of an ashy colour; in process of time it may assume a different character. On the one hand the Indus is continually encroaching on it, and washing it away. Where that river has mixed its sand with the original clay, the quality of the soil is plainly improved. On the other hand, towards the Daman and the hills, are considerable tracts of sand incumbent on the clay, and impregnated with salt; the rains annually bring down more sand and spread it on the clay. The original soil on the right of the Indus, even as far as Shikarpoor appears to have been clay, and clay is even now predominant; but towards the river a portion of sand has been introduced from its waters; and towards the hills sand or stones, or both, have been washed down by the rains. South-west of Dera Ghazee Khan, which is the capital of upper Sindh (see paragraph 25) on the road to Seeweestan, are the sands of Dajul, which if extensive would constitute a desert. Largee, (see paragraph 14) is sandy and unproductive. The plain of Eesa Khel is a clay or clayey loam of the best quality; it is of a dark red colour; its breadth is inconsiderable, and the Indus is daily diminishing it. The same changes in short are here operating as in Mukulwad, for here also we find a tract of barren and saline sands under the hills. The water of the Koorm after rain is of a bright red colour, and it deposits a loam of good quality. The district of Bunnoo is sandy, or a sandy loam. In the country of the Murwuts, which lies to the right of that river, and south-east of Bunnoo, are some tracts of sands very similar to those already mentioned; such also occur between Bunnoo and the districts of Malgeen and Kohat. These districts however have as yet received but little injury, from their neighbourhood possessing an excellent soil, which may be called a clayey loam. The colour in Kohat is black or grey, but in Malgeen red.
97. The original soil, and that which still predominates in the plains of Peshawur and Bajour is a clayey loam; there are now however several exceptions deserving of notice. Opposite to Chhuchh is the plain of the Mundeers, or lower Yoosufzyes, the soil of which is of the same kind and quality with that of Chhuchh. On the other side of the Cabul river the Khutuks possess the south-eastern corner of the plain of Peshawur, which is light, often stony, and of indifferent quality; more to the west, but still under the hills, are Oormul and some other places in which the soil is sandy and naturally poor. The Mihmund's lands are generally a clayey loam; and the Khuleel's
The colour of the soil is
have a still greater proportion of clay. various; it requires much water and much stirring, but when properly treated bears heavier crops than most lands in our provinces. Bajour is of a like nature. The lands of the Mihmudzyes and Daoodzyes have had introduced into them by alluvion a considerable proportion of sand. The latter are thirsty, and bear but ordinary crops. Swad and Punjkora has each its river, and are less clayey than Bajour. The Gugecanee lands are clayey, but such as are near the Ootman Khel and upper Mehmund hills have a mixture of stone. The Khuleels have the firmest soil, the clay extending to a great depth, and water being at a considerable distance from the surface: hence this tribe have dug many underground dwellings, in which to take refuge during the heat of midsummer, and they are not subject to fall in like those made in other parts of the plain.
98. Teera has a stony soil, which generally contains a considerable proportion of sand. Koonur and Lughman are loams of good quality, and very well watered, and productive in rice. The former because of its wideness requires a greater quantity of water for irrigation than Bajour. Jellalabad is a sandy and thirsty soil. Under its hills (the range of 34°) there extends on the left hand of the traveller to Cabul a barren tract, in length about forty-five miles from Busawul to Nimla; and in average breadth about five or six. It is partly stony and partly sandy. Perpetual winds here prevailing, it is thought that these sands are encroaching on the good lands. The present soil of Jellalabad has probably been transported from them by the winds. The lands of the upper Mihmunds are of very various kinds. Kama is clayey and moist, Goshta is inclined to sandy.
99. We find considerable variety in the soil of Cabul. The greater part is a loam with a great proportion of clay, but stones, gravel, and sand, have been lodged under the hills by the rains. On the left hand of the traveller as he goes to Ghorbund from Cabul, is a sandy tract under the hills. It is about eleven miles long by four broad, and quite uncultivated. This is the Reg-ruwan of which many fabulous stories are told by Aboolfuzl and others. The gardens and grounds used for raising vegetables in the vicinity of Cabul, have, by long care and culture been cleared of stones, and now have a black, fertile vegetable soil, from nine to twelve inches deep. In general the lands in this valley bear heavier crops of all things proper for the climate than those of the plain of Peshawur; but this is partly attributable to the plentiful manure and assiduous culture they receive. Draw-wells are but little used, as water is near to the surface; but the water of draw
wells in the city of Cabul is acknowledged to be bad. The neighbourhood of Ghuznee has a light soil, with a mixture of small stones. Some other parts of the table land are stiffer, as having more clay in their composition. A mixture of stones in the cultivated fields is universal, and indeed considerable tracts of the table land are so covered with small stones, as to yield but little, even in pasturage. The north has a good deal of broken ground; the south is more level. With respect to the lands of the Huzaras, they are of no one kind except that they are generally stony.
100. Mookr and Abitazee, on the road from Ghuznee to Candahar, have light soils with a mixture of small stones. The Dooranee country generally considered must be pronounced sandy. Near Candahar the soil is sandy and thirsty, but facilities exist for irrigation. In the city of Candahar water in draw-wells is near the surface, and of good quality, and few places can be named in the whole of Khoorasan where the water is bad. In general the inhabitants drink from running streams, but draw-wells are not unknown, especially within cities and in the desert places frequented only by shepherds. Between Hirat and the Persian Khoorasan there is a sterile tract, which forms an imperfect barrier. The Regimulikan would be crossed in the direct road from Jellalabad, the capital of Seestan, to Furah, and is of considerable extent. South of Soorbut the traveller crosses a desert tract forty miles broad, on the road to Goonabad and Ghaeen. In Seestan, especially the west, there are considerable expanses of sand, generally without fixed inhabitants, and sometimes without water. Between Jellalabad and Kilat of the Beeloches, the country is supposed to be generally a desert. The various desert or sterile spaces now mentioned, appear to me to have an imperfect communication with one another, and therefore do not constitute a military barrier; nay, we perhaps over-rate the difficulties they would throw in the way of the disposition and passage of troops. By digging draw-wells an enterprising and ingenious enemy would find water at a less depth in the earth than is commonly imagined.
101. Zumindawur is situated, as already mentioned, on the right of the Helbund, (see paragraph 56.) Its soil is more loamy than that of most other parts of the Dooranee country, and is of a good quality. Northwest of it is the country called Seahbund, situated within the Paraparnisan mountains, and inhabited by the Tymunus, a tribe of Ymaks: part of it has a clayey soil. The Gurmseer lies south and south-west of Zumindawur. Its soil, which is naturally sandy and weak, is rendered productive by water drawn from the Helbund. The Joolgha
or plain of Hirat is a sandy loam naturally fertile, and being well watered bears good crops. The same species of soil extends to Murv, and beyond it, although the intermediate space be little cultivated. The soil of Murv is esteemed very good; that of the Jumsheedee tribe, whose territory forms the north-east corner of Khoorasan (see para. 19, 27,) is perhaps equally good, and the Ymak vallies are in general fertile. In the Jumsheedee country, and also in Jam and Toorbut, is a great deal of broken ground. There is a less proportion of this in the country of Ghaeen, and Birjund, and in Zumindawur, but still it is considerable. Ekatool, belonging to the Ulukhoo-Zyes, a tribe of Dooranees, is remarkable for the quantity of its ravines and broken ground. Sungoo a city of Khaf has a hard clayey soil. The soil of Mushhud is good and productive. To the north we soon reach the desert of Margiana, which is generally a sandy plain, but contains some low hills or hillocks. To the east it approaches near to Muno, and north of that place joins the sands lying between Bactria and the Oxus (see paragraph 104.)
102. The great desert called Loot, lies south and west of Seestan, and divides Seestan and Khoorasan from the Persian province of Kirman. It undoubtedly communicates with deserts in the west of Bulochishtan, or those deserts form a part of it. It is throughout a sand, probably quite uncultivatable, and the edges only are visited by the pasturing tribes. It is crossed by caravans, and sometimes by small parties of marauding horse, but in these quarters those who go on expeditions, generally mount themselves on camels, as being more patient of thirst. Like other deserts its outlines are not easily traced, as it gradually melts into the inhabited country. In the road to Tubus (the westermost of that name) in Khoorasan, the last inhabited place in the province of Kirman is Durbund, which is forty fursukhs from the city of Kirman—at Durbund are some brackish springs; thence are forty-five fursukhs of desert, to Chihlpaya, where are no inhabitants, but a tank containing rain water, and a bowree dug by the order of Nadir Shah. It is reckoned to be 300 feet deep, and the water is brackish. There is here a hill which appears as if overturned by some convulsion of nature; it has not the least vegetation, and there is little grass or even shrub in this dismal desert. After fifteen fursukhs more, we reach Naeebund, where is some good water from springs in hills, and a few resident inhabitants. The country is still sandy and continues so far, several stages towards Tubus, and the population is but small. There is a road east of this road from Nil (see para. 27) to Khubees, where the chief inhabitants are Ghiljees, who settled
there during the time that the Afghan dynasty ruled Persia. is even a less practicable road than the other, and in summer is not travelled. There are eight stages of a camel journeying almost incessantly, and no water is to be had in the whole space. This desert then may be pronounced impassable by regular troops, except in the smallest bodies.
103. Our knowledge is very scanty concerning Bulochistan. Its western parts or western boundaries are generally desert, but in some places villages are interspersed. There is a winding road from Kilat to Kirman through Punjgoor, Jalk, Dezuk, and Bempoor, but various parts of the stages are desolate; the soil even in the route I conceive to be generally sandy; the fertile spots are at the foot of hills, which yield them either by nature or by means of art, a scanty supply of water. The hilly tract on which is situated Kilat is much superior to the preceding, yet even here are several upland wastes in which even water is not to be had for one or two days' journey. The soil of Kilat seems to be generally loamy, but in some places is a stiff clay. Such feeble streams as the Buloch hills yield being soon absorbed in this warm climate, there intervenes a dry space between the hills and the sea-coast, which may be compared to the Tehama of Hejaz and Yemen. In this space Rind tribes wander, whose chief riches are their camels. The soil seems to be most commonly inclined to clay. In Seweestan, a clay or clayey loam seems to predominate, but Dajul (which perhaps belongs to Sindh) is sandy, and there are other exceptions. In Seeweestan water in draw-wells is deeper under the surface than in Sindh, but yet at no inconvenient distance. In some routes spaces occur, of perhaps forty miles broad, where neither water nor cultivation is to be seen, but there is little reason to think the circumstance owing to the badness of the soil; some were formerly well peopled. There is a tradition that the river Indus taking a bold turn to the right formerly ran through this country, and appearances are said to favor it. The lake or swamp called Manchoor, mentioned by Aboolfuzl, was perhaps a part of the bed of the Indus; it is thought to be in the south-east. Aboolfuzl tells us it is near Seewee, but this I conceive erroneous. There are some low and moist lands in Seeweestan, which perhaps were also parts of the Indus bed. There is reason to think that from other causes the rest of Bulochistan (and the remark might be extended to other countries) is drier and more barren than in former times.
104. The soil of Bactria from Mymuna to Talikan, has a great proportion of clay in its original composition; at present this is most