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arrangement of incident, and that have a satirical tendency ; and the harmony of action which produces freedom with which he exposes vice, unity of purpose, and co-relation of the even when it belongs to royalty, has several parts to the whole, he is superior stamped his works with the character of to both; yet he does not possess intrepid sincerity.” Mr Ellis, in a Dunbar's power of, in a few touches, similar strain, observes :—"Perhaps, producing an effect which irresistibly indeed, “The Dream' is his only comdraws out, as it were, the latent forces position which can be cited as uniformly of the imagination, to see and feel far poetical ; but his various learning, his beyond the mere foreground picture good sense, his perfect knowledge of actually depicted. His imagination courts and of the world, the facility of lacks what may be termed the generative his versification, and, above all, his or vivifying force, and communicates no peculiar talent of adapting himself to impetus to carry us beyond the matter-of- readers of all denominations, will confact conception, whose bald definiteness tinue to secure to him a considerable suggests nothing in the background. share of that popularity for which he Indeed, it would almost appear as if he was originally indebted to the opinions felt some stiffness in this direction, for he professed, no less than to his poetical after his first poem, “ The Dream,” he merit.” confined himself to his more congenial Lindsay's works were all written after sphere. He has one great merit which the introduction of printing into Scot. does not characterize all his contempor- land; and had been all or mostly aries : he seldom fails to make his mean- printed separately during his lifetime ; ing clear to the most ordinary capacity, yet the first collected edition was by and hence one secret of his popularity. the French printer Jascuy, in 1558. Dr Irving remarks that his works “are This was followed, in 1559, by an edition often entertaining by their strokes of by John Scot of St Andrews, who, for humour, or instructive by their views of fear of the consequences threatened life and manners; and although his by the act of Mary, omitted the printer's delineations are sometimes extremely name, date, and place of printing. coarse, they are not on that account to The next edition was that by Henry be considered as less faithful. He was Charteris, Edinburgh, 1568, prefaced evidently a man of sense and observa- | by an account of the author, which tion, with serious impressions of virtue formed the nucleous of the subsequent and piety ; nor was he destitute of those lives. Frequent reprints followed ; and higher powers of mind which enable a so popular were Lindsay's works, that writer to communicate his ideas with | Chalmers, while carefully guarding due effect. He frequently displays no against instituting a comparison be. mean vivacity of fancy, and the extensive tween his poetical merits and those of and continued popularity to which he Chaucer, observes, that while only attained, must have rested on some twelve editions of the latter poet apsolid foundation. Many of his poems peared in a hundred and twenty-seven

:

II.

mine arm,

years from the edition of 1475, fourteen My service done unto thy celsitude, editions of Lindsay were printed in Whilk needis not at length for to be shown ; fifty-six years, including two in France, And though my youth-hood now, be near and three in England. Chalmers's edi- oure blown, tion in three vols., 1806, is the most

Exercit in service of thine excellence, elaborate that has yet appeared; but it Hope has me hecht' ane goodly recom

pense. is proper to add that Dr David Laing has a three-volume library edition in

When thou was young, I bore thee in preparation, the text of which, with the omission of some of the grosser parts Full tenderly, till thou begouth to gang, a of The Three Estates, was published as And in thy bed oft happèd3 thee full warm; a two-volume edition, with a Life and With lute in hand, syne, softly to thee sang; Glossary, in 1871.

Sometime in dancing feirelie+ I flang :
And sometime playand farces on the floor;

And sometime on mine office takand cure :
THE DREAM.

III. [This, the earliest of Lindsay's poems,

And sometime like ane fiend, transfigurate. was composed in 1528, when James V., And sometime like the grisly ghost of Gy, 5

In divers forms oft-times disfigurate, by his own address, escaped out of the

And sometime, disagysed 6 full pleasantly control of the Douglases. The address

So sen thy birth, I have continually. to the King, with which it begins, is a

Been occupied, and aye to thy pleasure, pleasing account of the social recrea

And sometime sewar, coppar7 and carver ; tions of the youthful monarch and his faithful page. This subject he resumes in “ The Complaint.”

Thy pursemaster and secret treasurer, The Prologue is, with that to the Thy usher aye sen thy nativity, “Monarchy," considered his most poeti. And of thy chalmer chief cubiculare, 8 cal production, although after a style very Loving be to the blessèd Trinity !

Whilk to this hour has keeped me lawty,9 common among his predecessors. The

That sic ane wretched worm has made so poem being too long to give in full, we

hable, 10 have restricted our selections to these Till sic ane prince to be so agreeable. two portions, along with that part of the “ Dream" proper which gives the poet's idea of the infernal regions, as But now thou art by influence natural, a contrast sketch to that of the state of High of ingine, and right inquisitive, the glorified bociies given from the Of ancient stories and deeds martial, “Monarchy."]

More pleasantly the time, for till ouredrive; THE EPISTI.E TO THE KING'S GRACE.

I Promised.

6 Disguised. 2 Began to walk.

7 Dish and cupbearer.

3 Tucked about. 8 Groom of bedchambRight potent prince of high imperial blood, 4 Strangely, merrily. 9 My loyalty. [er. Unto thy grace I trust it be weel known, 5 Sir Guyof Romance. 10 Able.

IV.

8

V.

I.

I have at length the stories done descrive,
Of Hector, Arthur, and gentle Julius,
Of Alexander and worthy Pompeius.

And fleméd: Flora, from every bank and

bus, Through support of the austere Eolus.

VI.

2

II.
Of Jason and Medea, all at length,
Of Hercules, the actis honourable,

After that, I the long winter's night
And of Samson, the supernatural strength,

Had lain waking in my bed alone, And of leal loveris stories amiable ;

Through heavy thought that no way And oft-times have I feignéd many fable,

sleep I might, Of Troylus, the sorrow and the joy,

Remembering of divers thingis gone : And sieges all of Tyre, Thebes and Troy.

Sae up I raise and cleithéd 3 me anon;

By this fair Titan 4 with his lemis 5 light, VII.

Over all the land had spread his banner The prophecies of Rymour, Beid, and

bright. Marling, And of many other pleasant story,

III. Of the Red Etin' and the Gyre Carling, a

With cloak and hood, I dressed me belive, 6 Comfortand thee when that I saw thee With double shoon and mittans7 on my

hands, sory, Now, with the support of the King of Howbeit the air was right penetrative ; glory;

Yet fure I forth, lansing ourethorts the I shall thee show ane story of the new,

lands The whilk afore I never to thee shew. Toward the sea, to sport me on the sands,

Because unbloomed was both bank and VIII.

brae But, humbly, I beseik thine excellence, And sae as I was passing by the way, With ornate terms though I cannot express This simple matter, for lack of eloquence,

IV. Yet notwithstanding, all my business,

I met dame Flora, in dule weed 9 disguised With heart and hand my mind I shall

Whilk, into May was dulce and delectaddress,

able, As I best can, and maist compendious :

With stalwart to storms her sweetness was Now, I begin, the matter happened thus.

supprysèd ;"

Her heavenly hues were turned into sable, THE PROLOGUE.

Whilk umquhyle" were to lovers amiable.

Fled from the frost the tender flowers I I. Into the Kalendis, of January,

Under dame Nature's mantle lurking law.13 When fresh Phæbus by moving circular, From Capricorn, was entered in Aquary,

1 Chased.

8 Darting across. With blastis that the branches made full ? Bush.

9 Sad garments. bare,

3 Dressed, clothed.

4 The sun. The snaw and sleet perturbéd all the air,

11 Suppressed. 5 Beams, gleams.

12 Sometime ago ' A giant with three 2 A gigantic sorceress. 6 Presently. heads.

? Shoes and woollen gloves.

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10 Violent.

13 Low.

V.

IX. The small fowls in flockis saw I flee, Pensive in heart, passing full soberly, To Nature, makand great lamentation ; Unto the sea, forward I fure' anon; They lighted down beside me on ane tree, The sea was furth, 2 the sand was smooth Of their complaint I had compassion,

and dry, And with ane piteous exclamation, Then up and down I musèd mine3 alone, They said, blessed be summer, with his Till that I spied ane little cave of stone flowris,

High in ane crag, upward I did approach And waryit? be thou winter with thy. But tarrying, 4 and clamb up in the roche ;5

showris.

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VI.

XI.

see

VII.

And purposėd, for passing of the time, " Alas! Aurora, the silly lark gan cry

Me to defend from ociosity, Where has thou left thy balmy liquor With pen and paper to register in rhyme; sweet

Some merry matter of antiquity ; That us rejoiced, we mounting in the sky? But idleness, ground of iniquity, Thy silver drops are turned into sleet : She made so dull my spirits, me within, O fair Phoebus ! where is thy hailsome That I wist not at what end to begin ;

heat? Why tholis thou thy heavenly pleasant face,

But sat still in that cove where I might With misty vapours, to be obscured, alas !

The weltering of the wallis up? and down,
And the false worldis instability

Unto that sea makand comparison ; "Where art thou May, with June thy And of this worldis wretched variation, sister sheen,

To them that fixes on it their intent, Weel bordered with daisies of delight?

Considering wha maist 8 had, should maist And gentle July with thy mantle green,

repent. Enameled with roses red and white?

XII. Now old and cold Januar, in despite

So with my hood my head I happèd warm, Reives 2 from us all pastime and pleasure: And in my cloak I folded both my feet, Alas ! what gentle heart may this endure?

I thought my corpse with cold should

take nae harm ; VIII.

My mittans held my handis weel in heat ; "Oversylèd 3 are with cloudis odious

The scouland 9 crag me covered from the The golden skyis of the orient ;

sleet; Changing in sorrow our song melodius

There still I sat my banis 10 for to rest, Whilk he had wont to sing with good | Till Morpheus with sleep my spirit intent;

oppressed. Resoundand to the heaven's firmament: But now our day is changed into night."

* Fared, went.

6 Idleness. With that they raise, and flew forth of

2 Out, at ebb.
3 By myself.

7 Waves.

my sight.

8 Who most. 4 Without delay.

9 Overhanging. Cursed. 2 Tears, robs. 3 Obscured.

5 Rock.

10 Bones.

V.

THE VISION OF HELL.

I.

XIII.

IV. So through the bousteous blastis' of Eolus, There saw we divers popesand emperours, And through my waking on the night Without recover, many careful kings; before,

There, saw we many wrongus conquerors And through the sea's moving marvellous Withouten right, rievers of others rings ;' By Neptunus, with many rout? and roar, The men of kirk lay bounden unto bings;2 Constrained I was to sleep withouten | There saw we many careful cardinal, more ;

And Archbishops, in their pontifical.
And what I dreamed, in conclusion
I shall you tell, ane marvellous vision.

Proud, and perversèd prelates out of

number, Priors, abbots, and false flatterand friers;

To specify them all, it were ane cumber ;3 Me thought ane lady of portrature perfite Regular canons, churl-monks, and Did salus 3 me, with begnign countenance;

chartereirs,
And I, whilk of her presence had delight, Curious clerks and priestis seculars ;
Till her again made humble reverence,

There was some part of ilk religion,
And her demanded, saving her pleasance, In holy kirk whilk did absusion.
What was her name? she answered
courteously

VI. Dame Remembrance, she said, called Then I demanded Dame Remembrance, am I;

The cause of thir prelatis punition :

She said the cause of their unhappy chance Whilk comen,4 is for pastime, and pleasure Was covetice, lust, and ambition, Of thee; and for to bear thee company ; The whilk now gars 4 them want fruition Because, I see thy spirit without measure

Of God, and here eternally mon 5 dwell, So sore perturbed by melancholy; Into this painful poisoned pit of hell, Causing thy corpse to waxen cold and dry; Therefore get up, and gang anon with me; So were we both, in twinkling of an ee, Als they did not instruct the ignorant.

Provocand them to penitence by preaching;

But served worldly princes insolent, Down through the earth, in middis of the

And were promoved by their feigned centre

fleiching, Or ever I wist, into the lowest hell ;

Not for their science, wisdom, nor teaching And to that careful5 cove, when we did enter, By simony, was their promotion, Yowting, and yowling, we heard, with more for deneiris, 7 nor for devotion,

mony yell, In flame of fire, right furious and fell,

VIII. Was cryand many careful creature,

Ane other cause of the punition Blasphemand God, and wariand 7 nature. Of thir unhappy prelatis, imprudent,

II.

VII.

III.

: Fierce blasts.
2 Bellow.
3 Salute.
4 Who is come.

5 Woeful.
6 Howling and yell-

ing.
Cursing.

'Spoilers of others'

states.
Heaps.
3 Tedious, a trouble.

4 Makes. 5 Must. 6 Flattery. 7 Money

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