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even when it belongs to royalty, has stamped his works with the character of intrepid sincerity." Mr Ellis, in a similar strain, observes :-" Perhaps, indeed, 'The Dream' is his only composition which can be cited as uniformly poetical; but his various learning, his good sense, his perfect knowledge of courts and of the world, the facility of his versification, and, above all, his peculiar talent of adapting himself to

tinue to secure to him a considerable share of that popularity for which he was originally indebted to the opinions he professed, no less than to his poetical merit."

arrangement of incident, and that have a satirical tendency; and the harmony of action which produces | freedom with which he exposes vice, unity of purpose, and co-relation of the several parts to the whole, he is superior to both; yet he does not possess Dunbar's power of, in a few touches, producing an effect which irresistibly draws out, as it were, the latent forces | of the imagination, to see and feel far beyond the mere foreground picture actually depicted. His imagination lacks what may be termed the generative or vivifying force, and communicates no impetus to carry us beyond the matter-of-readers of all denominations, will confact conception, whose bald definiteness suggests nothing in the background. Indeed, it would almost appear as if he felt some stiffness in this direction, for after his first poem, "The Dream," he confined himself to his more congenial sphere. He has one great merit which does not characterize all his contemporaries: he seldom fails to make his meaning clear to the most ordinary capacity, and hence one secret of his popularity. Dr Irving remarks that his works "are often entertaining by their strokes of humour, or instructive by their views of life and manners; and although his delineations are sometimes extremely coarse, they are not on that account to be considered as less faithful. He was evidently a man of sense and observation, with serious impressions of virtue and piety; nor was he destitute of those higher powers of mind which enable a writer to communicate his ideas with due effect. He frequently displays no mean vivacity of fancy, and the extensive and continued popularity to which he attained, must have rested on some solid foundation. Many of his poems

Lindsay's works were all written after the introduction of printing into Scotland, and had been all or mostly printed separately during his lifetime; yet the first collected edition was by the French printer Jascuy, in 1558. This was followed, in 1559, by an edition by John Scot of St Andrews, who, for fear of the consequences threatened by the act of Mary, omitted the printer's name, date, and place of printing. The next edition was that by Henry Charteris, Edinburgh, 1568, prefaced by an account of the author, which formed the nucleous of the subsequent lives. Frequent reprints followed; and so popular were Lindsay's works, that Chalmers, while carefully guarding against instituting a comparison between his poetical merits and those of Chaucer, observes, that while only twelve editions of the latter poet appeared in a hundred and twenty-seven

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My service done unto thy celsitude,
Whilk needis not at length for to be shown
And though my youth-hood now, be near
oure blown,

years from the edition of 1475, fourteen editions of Lindsay were printed in fifty-six years, including two in France, and three in England. Chalmers's edition in three vols., 1806, is the most elaborate that has yet appeared; but it Hope has me hecht' ane goodly recom

is proper to add that Dr David Laing has a three-volume library edition in preparation, the text of which, with the omission of some of the grosser parts of The Three Estates, was published as a two-volume edition, with a Life and Glossary, in 1871.


[This, the earliest of Lindsay's poems, was composed in 1528, when James V., by his own address, escaped out of the control of the Douglases. The address to the King, with which it begins, is a pleasing account of the social recreations of the youthful monarch and his faithful page. This subject he resumes in "The Complaint." ·

Exercit in service of thine excellence,



When thou was young, I bore thee in
mine arm,

Full tenderly, till thou begouth to gang,
And in thy bed oft happèd3 thee full warm;
With lute in hand, syne, softly to thee sang;
Sometime in dancing feirelie+ I flang ;
And sometime playand farces on the floor;
And sometime on mine office takand cure:


And sometime like ane fiend, transfigurate.
And sometime like the grisly ghost of Gy, 5
In divers forms oft-times disfigurate,
And sometime, disagysed full pleasantly
So sen thy birth, I have continually.
Been occupied, and aye to thy pleasure,
And sometime sewar, coppar? and carver ;


Thy pursemaster and secret treasurer,
Thy usher aye sen thy nativity,
Whilk to this hour has keeped me lawty,9
And of thy chalmer chief cubiculare,R
Loving be to the blessed Trinity!

The Prologue is, with that to the "Monarchy," considered his most poetical production, although after a style very common among his predecessors. The poem being too long to give in full, we have restricted our selections to these Till sic ane prince to be so agreeable. two portions, along with that part of the "Dream" proper which gives the poet's idea of the infernal regions, as a contrast sketch to that of the state of the glorified bodies given from the "Monarchy."]

That sic ane wretched worm has made so hable, 10

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But now thou art by influence natural,
High of ingine, and right inquisitive,
Of ancient stories and deeds martial,
More pleasantly the time, for till ouredrive;
6 Disguised.


2 Began to walk.
3 Tucked about.

7 Dish and cupbearer. 8 Groom of bedchamb

9 My loyalty. [er.

4 Strangely, merrily.
5 Sir Guy of Romance. 10 Able.

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And flemèd Flora, from every bank and bus,2

Through support of the austere Eolus.


After that, I the long winter's night
Had lain waking in my bed alone,
Through heavy thought that no way
sleep I might,

Remembering of divers thingis gone :
Sae up I raise and cleithèd3 me anon;
By this fair Titan4 with his lemis 5 light,
Over all the land had spread his banner


With cloak and hood, I dressed me belive," With double shoon and mittans? on my hands,

Howbeit the air was right penetrative; Yet fure I forth, lansing ourethort the lands

Toward the sea, to sport me on the sands, Because unbloomèd was both bank and


And sae as I was passing by the way,


I met dame Flora, in dule weed? disguised Whilk, into May was dulce and delectable,

With stalwart 10 storms her sweetness was supprysed;"

Her heavenly hues were turned into sable, Whilk umquhyle were to lovers amiable. Fled from the frost the tender flowers I


Under dame Nature's mantle lurking law. 13

I Chased.

2 Bush.

3 Dressed, clothed.

4 The sun.

5 Beams, gleams.


A gigantic sorceress.

6 Presently.

8 Darting across. 9 Sad garments.

10 Violent. II Suppressed. 12 Sometime ago 13 Low.

7 Shoes and woollen gloves.


The small fowls in flockis saw I flee,
To Nature, makand great lamentation;
They lighted down beside me on ane tree,
Of their complaint I had compassion,
And with ane piteous exclamation,


Pensive in heart, passing full soberly,
Unto the sea, forward I fure' anon;

The sea was furth, 2 the sand was smooth
and dry,

Then up and down I musèd mine3 alone,

They said, blessèd be summer, with his Till that I spied ane little cave of stone flowris, High in ane crag, upward I did approach

And waryit be thou winter with thy. But tarrying, 4 and clamb up in the roche ;5 showris.


"Alas! Aurora, the silly lark gan cry Where has thou left thy balmy liquor


That us rejoiced, we mounting in the sky?
Thy silver drops are turned into sleet:
O fair Phoebus! where is thy hailsome

Why tholis thou thy heavenly pleasant

With misty vapours, to be obscured, alas!


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The weltering of the wallis up? and down,
And the false worldis instability
Unto that sea makand comparison;

"Where art thou May, with June thy And of this worldis wretched variation,

sister sheen,

Weel bordered with daisies of delight?
And gentle July with thy mantle green,
Enameled with roses red and white?
Now old and cold Januar, in despite
Reives from us all pastime and pleasure:
Alas! what gentle heart may this endure?


"Oversylèd 3 are with cloudis odious
The golden skyis of the orient;
Changing in sorrow our song melodius
Whilk he had wont to sing with good


Resoundand to the heaven's firmament:
But now our day is changed into night."
With that they raise, and flew forth of
my sight.

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6 Idleness.

7 Waves.

8 Who most.

9 Overhanging. 10 Bones.

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Dame Remembrance, she said, called Then I demanded Dame Remembrance,

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