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That in their youth by diligent labour, Until this time. But after my conceit, Have learned Latin, Greek and Hebrew : Had Saint Jerome been born into Argyle, That I am not of that sort sore I rue; In Irish tongue his books had done comWherefore I would all bookis necessar

pile. For our faith were into our tongue vulgar.

Prudent Saint Paul doth make narra-

tion. Christ, after his glorious ascension.

Touching the divers leeds of every land, To his disciples sent his holy spirit In cloven tongues of fire, to that intention, Şaying, there been more edification

In five wordis that folk doth understand, That being of all languages replete

Than to pronounce of words ten thousand Through all the world, with wordis fair and sweet,

In strange language, and know not what

it means, To every man the faith they would forth

I think such pratling is not worth two shaw,

preens. In there own leed delivering them the law.

Unlearned people on the holy day Therefore I think it great derision,

Solemnedly they hear the Evangel sung, To hear the nuns and sisters nightand day, Not knowing what the priest doth sing or Singing and saying psalms and orisons

say, Not understanding what they sing or say :

But as a bell when that they hear it rung; But like a starling, or a papingay,

Yet would the priests into their mother Which learned are to speak by long usage.

tongue, Them I compare to birdis in a cage.

Pass to the pulpit, and that doctrine declare

To lay people, it were more necessare. XII.

XVI. Right so children and ladies of honours

I would that prelates and doctors of the Pray in Latin, to them an uncouth leed, law Mumbling their matins, even-songs, and With us lay people were not discontent, their hours,

Though we into our vulgar tongue did Their Pater-noster, Ave, and their Creed:

knaw It were as pleasent to their spirit indeed, Of Christ Jesus the life and testament, God have mercy on me, for to say thus, And how that we should keep commandeAs for to say, miserere mei Deus.


But in our language let us pray and read XIII.

Our Pater-noster, Ave, and our Creed. Saint Jerome in his proper tongue Roman,

XVII. The law of God he truly did translate I would some prince of great discretion, Out of Hebrew, and Greek, in Latin plain, In vulgar language plainly caused transWhich hath been hid from us long time, late, God wait,?

The needful lawis of this region,

1 Morning prayers.

2 Knows.

1 Pins.


Then would there not be half so great debate,

ON CERTAIN PLEASURES OF THE Amongst us people of the low estate.

GLORIFIED BODIES. If every man the verity did knaw,

XXII. We needed not to treat these men of law,

Since their is none in earth may comXVIII.

prehend To do our neighbour wrong we would The heavenly glore and pleasures infinite; beware,

Wherefore, my son, I pray thee not pretend If we did fear the lawis punishment : Too far to seek that matter of delight, There would not be such brawling at the Which passeth natural reason to indite,

That God, before that he the world create, Nor men of law climb to such royal rent : Prepared to them whilk are predestinate. To keep the law if all men were content, And each man do as he would be done to,

The judges would get little thing a-do. All mortal men shall be made immortal,

That is to say, never to die again ;

Impassible, and so celestial,
The prophet David king of Israel,

That fire nor sword may do to them no Compiled the pleasant psalmis of the

pain, psalter,

Nor heat, nor cold, nor frost, nor wind, In his own proper tongue, as I hear tell ;

nor rain, And Solomon which was his son and heir, Though such things were, may do to them Did make his book into his tongue vulgar:

no deir, 1 Why should not their sayings be to us

These creatures, right so, shall be as clear, shown In our language? I would the cause were


As flaming Phoebus in his mansion :

Consider then if there shall be great light, Let doctors write their curious ques. When every one into his region tions,

Shall shine like to the sun, and be as bright, And arguments sown full of sophistry;

Let us, with Paul, desire to see that sight. Their logic, and their high opinions,

To be dissolved Paul had great desire, Their dark judgments of astronomy,

With Christ to be into the heaven empire. Their medicine, and their philosophy; Let poets show their glorious ingine,

XXV. As ever they please, in Greek or in and moreover, as clerkis can descrive, Latin.

Their marvellous mirthis beis incomparXXI. But let us have the bookis necessar

Among the rest, in all their senses five, To common-weal, and our salvation,

They shall have sensual pleasure delectable, Justly translated in our tongue vulgar ; The heavenly sound which shall be And eke I make you supplication,

inenarrable, O gentle reader, have none indignation,

Into their ears continually shall ring. Thinking I meddle with so high matter.

And eke the sight of Christ Jesus our King, Now to my purpose forward will I fare.

? Inexpressible.

able ;

1 Harm.


Ххх. In his triumphant throne imperial, And eke they shall have such agility, With his mother, the Virgin Queen of In one instant to pass for their pleasure, queens.

Ten thousand miles in twinkling of an eye, There shall be seen the court celestial : So that their joys shall be without measure; Apostles, martyrs, confessors and virgins, They shall rejoice to see the great dolour Brighter than Phoebus, in his sphere that of damned folk in hell, and their torment, shines :

Because it is of God the just judgment.
The patriarchs and prophets venerable,
There shall be seen in glore inestimable.


Subtilty they shall have marvellous ;
And with their spiritual eyes shall be Supposing that there were a wall of brass,

A glorified body may right hastily, seen,

Out through the wall without impediment That light which is most superexcellent,

pass, God as he is, and evermore hath been,

Such like as doth the sunbeam through Continually that sight contempland.

the glass; Augustin saith, He'd rather take in hand

As Christ to his disciples did appear, To be in hell, he seeing the Essence

All entries close, and none of them did Of God, than be in heaven without his

steir. presence.

Who seeth God in his Divinity,

Albeit in heaven though every creature He sees in him all other pleasant things,

Have not alike felicity and glore, The which with tongue cannot pronounced Yet every one shall have so great pleasure,

And so content, they shall desire no more: What pleasure been to see the King of To have more joy they shall no way kings!

implore, The greatest pain the damned folk down

But they shall be all satisfied and content, thrings,

Like to this rude example subsequent. And to the devilis the maist punition, It is of God to lack fruition.

Take a crowat, a pint-stoup, and a quart, ΧΧΙΧ.

A gallon pitcher, a punsion, and a tun, And moreover they shall feel such smell, Of wine, or balm, give every one his part, Surmounting far the flewer' of earthly And fill them full till they be over-run, flowers ;

The little crowat, in comparison, And in their mouth a taste, as I hear tell, Shall be so full, that it can hold no more, Of sweet and supernatural sapours;2 Of such measures, though they were twenty Als they shall see the heavenly bright

colours, Shining among these creaturis divine,

Into the tun or in the punsion, Which to descrive transcendeth man's

So all these vessels-one in qualtityingine.3

May hold no more, except they over-run, 1 Flavour.

3 Ingenuity. Yet have they not alike in quantity :

be :




2 Taste.

So by this rude example thou may see,
Though every one be not alike in glore,
Are satisfied so that they desire no more.

And a continual contemplation,
With hot desire to come unto that glore,
Which pleasure shall endure for evermore.


XXXIX. Though presently by God's purveyance, O Lord our God, and King Omnipotent ! All beasts, and fowls, and fishes in the seas, Which knew ere thou the heavens and Are necessary for man's sustenance,

earth create, With corns, herbs, flowers, and fruitful Who would to thee be disobedient, trees,

And so deserve for to be reprobate : Then shall there be no such commodities ; | Thou knowest the number of predestinate, The earth shall bear no plant, nor beast Whom thou didst call, and hast them brutal ;

justified, But as the heavens bright like beryal." And shall in heaven with thee be glorified.



XL. Suppose some be on earth walking here Grant us to be, Lord, of that chosen sort,

down, Or high above wherever they please to go, Didst purify, as scripture doth report,

Whilk of thy mercy superexcellent Of God they have aye clear fruition,

With the blood of that holy innocent, Both east and west, up, down, or to and

Jesus, whilk made himself obedient

Unto the death, and starvėd' on the rood; Clerks have declared pleasures many mo, Which doth transcend all mortal man's Let us, O Lord, be purged with that blood.

ingine, The thousand part of those pleasures,

XLI. define

All creatures that ever God created,

As writeth Paul, they wish to see that day, Into the heaven they shall perfectly knaw

When the children of God predestinated, Their tender friends, their father, and Shall do appear in their new fresh array, their mother,

When corruption shall be cleansèd quite Their predecessors whom they never saw, away, Their spouses, children, their sister and And changed shall be their mortal quality, their brother ;

In the great glore of immortality. And every one shall have such love to other,

XLII. Of others glore, and joy they shall rejoice, And moreover all dead things corporal. As of their own, as clerkis do suppose. Under the concave of the heavens empire,

That now to labour subject are and thrall ; XXXVIII.

Sun, moon and stars, earth, water, air and Then shall be seen the bright Jerusalem, fire, Which John saw in his Revelation, In ane manner they have a hot desire, We mortal men, alas ! are sore to blame, Wishing that day, that they may be at rest, That wiil not have consideration,

As Erasmus expoundeth manifest.

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names of Dilligence, Divine Correction, We see the great globe of the firmament Good Counsel, Chastity, and Verity ; and Continually in moving marvellous : the latter under those of Wantonness, The seven planets contrar their intent,

Sensuality, Falsehood, Deceit, and Are reft about with course contrarious.

Flattery, the three last, with the habit of The wind and sea with stormis furious, The troubled air, with frost and snow,

friars, assuming the disguised names of

of Sapience, Discretion, and Devotion, and rain, Until that day, they travel aye in pain,

The subject of contention is the control

of King Humanity, and the Three XLIV.

Estates of his realm ; Spirituality, perAnd all the angels of the orders nine, sonifying the clergy, Temporality, the Having compassion on our miseries, landholders, and Merchantman, the They wish after that day, and to that fine burgesses. There are some other inci. To see us freed from our infirmities,

dental characters, as Pauper, a Pardoner; And cleansed from these great calamities, And troublous life which never shall have Sowtar's wife

, and a Tailor's wife, whose

a Sowtar (shoemaker); a Tailor, a end,

ludicrous exhibitions display most of Until that day, I make it to thee kend.

the coarseness, and much of the rude

wit of the piece. Besides the abstracTHE SATIRE OF THE THREE (indulgence); as counsellors of the King,

tions, Placebo (sycophancy); and Solace ESTATES.

and others of a miscellaneous character,

there is that of the Common-good, under IN COMMENDATION OF VIRTUE, AND

the designation of John the CommonIN VITUPERATION OF VICE.

weal. While the sub-title correctly defines

During the early part of King the author's purpose, and classifies his Humanity's reign, the Vices have it all play as belonging to the second stage their own way, his majesty, through the of the dramatic art—that of the Moral- | influence of Solace and Wantonness, ities; yet, its advance in the direction being mostly under the dominion of of the regular drama, so far beyond any Sensuality, while the affairs of the state contemporary production in the langu. are left to the control of Falsehood, age, gives it an historical interest in Flattery, and Deceit. They have addition to that which it merits on

banished Good Counsel from court, and account of the ingenuity of its structure,

on Verity making her appearance there, and the genuine glimpses of contem. they call in Spirituality, with several porary society which it preserves.

ecclesiastics, who, on finding an English It may be summarily described as a

New Testament in her possession, deconflict between the Virtues and the nounce her as a heritic, and put her in Vices; the former personified under the the stocks. Chastity next tries to gain

admission, but finding no favour at the · End, object.

hands of the courtiers, she turns to the


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