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But (whilst base sloth each better care con- The bodies straight corrupt in which they troules)

lodge : Are dead in ignorance, entomb'd alive : And those, by whose example many "Twixt beasts and such the difference is

fall, but small,

Are guilty of the murther of them all. They use not reason, beasts have none at all.

The meanes which best make majestie to II.

stand, O! heavenly treasure which the best sort

Are laws observ'd, whilst practise doth loves,

direct : Life of the soule, reformer of the will,

The crowne, the head, the scepter decks Cleare light, which from the mind each

the hand, cloud removes,

But onely knowledge doth the thoughts Pure spring of vertue, physicke for each ill,

erect; Which in prosperity a bridle proves,

Kings should excell all them whom they And in adversity a pillar still ;

command, Of thee the more men get, the more

In all the parts which do procure respect : they crave,

And this, a way to what they would, And thinke, the more they get, the lesse

prepares, they have.

Not onely as thought good, but as

known theirs.
But if that knowledge be requir'd of all,
What should they doe this treasure to

Seek not due reverence onely to procure, obtaine,

With shows of soveraignty, and guards
Whom in a throne, time travels to enstall,

oft lewd,
Where they by it of all things must ordaine: So Nero did, yet could not so assure
If it make them who by their birth were

The hated diademe with bloud imbru'd ;

Nor as the Persian kings, who liv'd As little kings, whilst o'er themselves

obscure, they raigne,

And of their subjects rarely would be Then it must make, when it hath

view'd ; throughly grac'd them,

So one of them was secretly o're-thrown, Kings more then' kings, and liked to him

And in his place the murtherer raign'd who plac'd them.


This is a griefe which all the world be-

No, onely goodnesse doth beget regard, mones,

And equity doth greatest glory winne, When those lack judgement who are

To plague for vice, and vertue to reward, borne to judge,

What they intend, that, bravely to begin ; And like to painted tombes, or guilded | This is to soveraigntie a powerfull guard, stones,

And makes a princes praise o're all come in : To troubled soules cannot afford refuge ;

Whose life (his subjects law) clear'd by Kings are their kingdomes hearts, which

his deeds, tainted once,

More then Justinians toyls, good order ! For than.




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What have I done, since she gainst love

repin'd? pin'd Ah, will no soule give eare unto my mone? What did I when I her to life preferid

er'd Who answers thus so kindly when I crie? What did mine eyes, whilst she my heart

restrain'd? rain'd What fostred thee that pities my despaire? What did she whilst my muse her praise aire

proclaim'd? claim'd Thou blabbing guest, what know'st thou And what? and how? this doth me most of my fall? all

affright. of right What did I when I first my faire disclos'd? What if I never sue to her againe? los'd

gaine Where was my reason, that it would not And what when all my passions are represt? doubt? out

rest What cans't thou tell me of my ladie's will ? But what thing will best serve t' asswage ill

desire ? ire Wherewith can she acquit my loyall part? | And what will serve to mitigate my rage? art

age What hath she then with me to disaguise? I see the sunne begins for to descend. aguise



1585-1649. Though there are few if any salient | Sir John Drummond of Stobhall, the repoints in the life of William Drummond, presentative of the main branch of the and though his writings are anything but family, was the mother of James I. This familiar, yet his name, as the local alliance with the Stuart sovereigns no genius of the romantic mansion and doubt had its influence upon the chargrounds of Hawthornden, is perhaps acter of a man of such conservative tastes more widely known now than when he and feelings as the poet was known lived.

to be. His father, who was the first He himself, in one of his genealogical Laird of Hawthornden, was the second excursions, traces the family to a Hun- son of Sir Robert Drummond of Car. garian of the name of Maurice, who nock, in Fifeshire. In 1590 he was ap came to Scotland the train of Edgar pointed gentleman usher to King James Atheling and his sister Margaret, and VI., and on James' accession to the remained in her service after she became English throne he received the honour of the Queen of Malcolm Ceanmore. , knighthood. His mother was Susannah Annabella Drummond, the daughter of Fowler, sister of William Fowler, who became private secretary to James's “Content with my books and the use of queen, Ann of Denmark. The poet my eyes, I learnt even from my boywas born at Hawthornden House, on the hood to live beneath my fortune ; and, 13th December 1585, and was edu- dwelling by myself as much as I can, I cated at the High School of Edin- neither sigh for nor seek aught that is burgh. He also studied at Edinburgh outside me.” It must be admitted that University; and, having taken his an unfavouitble construction might be degree of M.A., he in 1C06 went to put upon this; but considering the state France, where he studied law for three of Scotland at the time, from a literary, years, both at Bourges and Paris. He or political, or from almost any point stayed at London for some time on his of view, there was much to excuse a way,

and as his uncle Fowler had young man of sensibility and self-respect removed there with the court, he would for entertaining what seems selfishly likely have stayed with him.

exclusive ideas of living. But his In 1609 he returned to Scotland, muse, as might be expected in the case and had hardly commenced the practical of a young bachelor laird, introduced duties of his profession when the sudden another guest, who soon shared his death of his father at once turned the affections with herself. current of his thoughts in a more con- Although the first fruits of Drumgenial direction. At the age of twenty- mond's pen were sonnets inspired by four he became Laird of Hawthornden, “beauty's force,” the event that first with ample means to enable him to made him known as an author was the gratify his literary tastes in the study of death of Prince Henry, in 1612, on the classic authors of ancient and modern which, in 1613, he published an Elegy times—his ambition, if such it may be entitled, “Tears on the Death of called, being to be, rather than to be Mæliades.” Professor Masson regards known—at least in the popular sense-as it as “the most graceful and intrinsiwhat we comprehend under the phrase cally poetical of all the tributes evoked "a gentleman and a scholar.” His after by the occasion." The publication reflections upon the aspirations of his of the Elegy made him known to Sir youth he records in one of his sonnets:- William Alexander oí Menstrie, who

also wrote an Elegy on the same sub“In my first years, and prime not yet at height, ject, and on the occasion of their first When sweet conceits my wit did entertain, Ere beauty's force I knew, or false delight,

meeting soon after, they formed a friendOr to what oar she did her captives chain; ship which only death dissolved. Led by a sacred troop of Phoebus' train,

But Drummond's muse was inspired I first began to read, then lov'd to write,

by a much stronger force than that of And so to praise a perfect red and white, But, God wot, wist not what was in my brain.” friendship, the particulars regarding

which, so far as preserved, are given in His purpose in life he also summarizes the following extract from the life prefixed in Latin, of which the following trans- to the 1711 edition of his works, edited by lation is given by Professor Masson :-- Bishop Sage :-“Notwithstanding his


close retirement and serious application Most Excellent Majesty." It need to his studies, love stole in upon him only be remarked that it is regarded as and did entirely captivate his heart; for the most poetical effusion on an event he was on a sudden highly enamoured which called forth many inferior, and of a fine, beautiful young lady, daughter few as sincere and disinterested. to Cunningham of Barns, an ancient and Though he received no special recog. honourable family. He met with nition of his poetic gifts through the suitable returns of chaste love from her, King's visit, his fame was considerably and fully gained her affections; but extended by the interest which the event when the day for the marriage was ap- excited throughout both kingdoms, and pointed, and all things ready for the procured him the recognition of the solemnification of it, she took a fever, chief English poets then living—Michael and was suddenly snatched away by it, Drayton and Ben Jonson. So much to his great grief and sorrow." How is Jonson's visit to Scotland, in the profoundly he was affected by this sad following year, associated with Drumand unexpected event is set forth in his mond, that it is a popular belief that to Sonnets, of which his love-suit is the see him was Ben's chief end in undertheme. The circumstances were suffi- taking the journey. The meeting of ciently impressive to have moved the two poets and their conversations at ordinary nature to its depths, but in Hawthornden is almost the only literary Drummond's case the depths were not memorial of the event. ordinary; and his own account of his loss of Drummond's life following Jonson's has few parallels, besides that of the visit were spent in the quiet pursuit of profound grief of Dante for Beatrice. his literary studies, and the occasional They were published in 1616, in two exchange of letters with his friends, parts ; their theme is the same, the first Michael Drayton and Sir William referring to the time previous to the Alexander. But in 1623, he published death of his betrothed, and the second his fourth volume, which consists of to that after. There are also a few “Flowers of Sion," and the “Cypress poems in the volume under the heading Grove,” this last being a prose essay of of “Urania, or Spiritual Poems,” which religious and philosophical reflections indicate the dawn of that etherealized upon life and death, their nature and conception of his mistress, which to some conditions, written in an easy graceful extent superseded his natural sorrow, style, and pervaded by broad, reverent, and which ever after bloomed in his and deeply suggestive but unstrained bosom as a fragrant immortel.

views of subjects that ever have, and The visit of King James to Scotland ever shall occupy the contemplative in 1617 was the first event that recalled moods of all serious minds. Professor him from the contemplation of his Masson observes, that “ for its pensive bereavement, and his loyalty found beauty, its high moral-mindedness, vent in a poem, entitled, “Forth's the mournful music that rolls through Feasting : A Panegyric to the King's | it, it surpasses any piece of old English

The five years

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prose known to me, except, perhaps, a known as the History Of The Five passage of the old English divines at Jameses. He is supposed to have been their best.” The poetical portion of incited to this undertaking by his the volume is a continuation of the brother-in-law, Sir John Scott class entitled “Urania” in his second Scotstarvet, who took a patriotic interest publication, some of which reappear in in Scottish literature. As a history it a revised form in this.

is reckoned of little value. After this he It is supposed that in 1625 he revisited became somewhat equivocally involved the Continent for about a twelvemonth, in the trying political currents that but in 1627 he appears in an entirely intersected the latter part of Charles' new character, that of the patentee of reign ; and, without being a zealous several mechanical inventions, mostly of partisan, took the royal side of the cona warlike character, the names of which But the collapse of Montrose's may excite a smile, but the principles brilliant and meteor-like career in Scotof some of them, so far as we can judge land put an end to the hopes of the from the description, are anticipations royalists. Drummond, though a sympaof inventions that have since been re- thiser in his victories, and in correspondduced to practice, as the Wind Measurer, ence with the gallant cavalier and and Ship Fountain, for converting salt fellow poet, was not disturbed by the water into fresh. An event which opposite party, yet he was much affected brought him more lasting credit, and by the King's death, whom he survived perhaps cost less, is also referable to less than a year. He died on the 4th this year, namely his presentation of December 1649, in his 65th year, and about 500 volumes, and some MSS., was buried in the family aisle in the to the Edinburgh University Library. church of Lasswade. He was survived This donation he again augmented in by his wife and three children out of a 1629 and 1630, and the collection is still family of nine. Hawthornden has passed carefully preserved in a separate cabinet out of the poet's lineage, but is still in

After a few years spent from home, possession of a namesake, and shall he returned in 1632, and in his forty- always retain his memory. sixth year got married to Elizabeth All Drummond's manuscripts, arLogan, in whom he fancied he saw a ranged by Dr David Laing, and bound in resemblance to his long lost Miss fifteen volumes, are in the possession of Cunningham. Some doubt exists as to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. his wife's family, one account making A standard quarto edition of his Poems her the grand-daughter of Sir Robert was edited by Lord Dundrennan and Logan of Restalrig, near Edinburgh, Dr Irving for the Maitland Club in 1832; and another, the daughter of the Rev. but two smaller editions, one in 1833, Mr Logan, parish minister of Eddleston. and the other in 1856, have since been

After his marriage, Drummond relin published. An exhaustive Life, by Proquished poetry, and wrote a sectional fessor Masson, was published in 1873. History of Scotland, from 1423 to 1542,

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