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JOURNAL

OF THE

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.

Part 1.-HISTORY, LITERATURE, &e.

No. 1.–1899.

On the Kāçmiri Verb.-By G. A. Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., I.C S.

[Read January, 1899.] The Kāçmiri Verb is treated in the Akhyāta- and Krdanta-prakriyās of Içvara-kaula's Kaçmīraçabdāmrta.

Verbal roots may end either in a consonant or in a vowel. When a root ends in a consonant, the vowel q a is added to assist the pronunciation. Thus the root aç kar is written at kare. It is still, however, considered to be a root ending in a consonant and is referred to as such. The final pa is dropped before adding the conjugational suffixes. For this reason, throughout this series of papers, I shall so far depart from the rule of strict transliteration, that I shall not write the final » a of roots ending in consonants, although that final y a will be written in the Nāgari character.

When a root ends in a vowel, that vowel is always g i. There are only eight of these roots, of which five belong to the first, and three to the third conjugation, as follows,

First Conjugation.— ra khi, eat; fą ci, drink; fdi, give; far ni, take ; and fe hi, take. Third Conjugation. — for zi, be born ; fu pi, fall; and for yi, come

J. 1. 1

As in the above examples, all verbs will be quoted under their root-forms.

Excepting the verbs fa ni, take, f& di, give, and for yi, come, all verbs whose roots end in vowels change the final şi to 7 ya(ě) throughout (viii. ii. 11). Thus, the present participle of all these verbs is made by adding atą wān to the root. But the present participle of fm khi, eat, is earą khyawan, not feara khiwān. On the other hand, the present participle of fa ni, take, is faara niwān, not ayala nyawān. This rule is a most important one, and will be met over and over again in the following pages.

Conjugation. There are three conjugations of verbs. They only differ in the formation of the Causal Voice, and of the past participles and of the tenses derived from them. Their consideration is postponed till these tenses come to be dealt with.

Voice.

There are three voices: the Active, the Passive, and the Causal.

THE Active Voice. This is formed by adding the conjugational suffixes to the root direct according to the rules to be hereafter detailed.

The Passive VOICE. This is formed by conjugating the oblique form of the verbal noun in ga un, that is to say, the shortened form of the Instrumental Singular which is used before post-positions, and which ends in ya ana, with the verb fo yi, come, which may either precede or follow. Thus, from the verb at kar, make, the verbal noun is atą karun. The obliqne form of this is #ta karane, and the Passive is ara fa karana yi, be made, literally, come into making. Compare the Hindi fa quat dēkhātā hai, it comes into seeing, it is seen (viii. i. 49). Examples of the use of the Passive are (viii. i. 50).

raa faalą ga ranane yiwān chuh bate, the rice is coming

into cooking, i.e., is being cooked.

OTTO T fata a pāna-y chuh yiwān karan“, he, himself, is

being made. Even neuter verbs can take the passive form, without, in this case, changing their meaning (viii. i. 51). Thus,

ataca zātān chuh; or
paa faala zõtane yiwān chuh, he is shining. The latter

example is literally, he is coming into shining.
gla dazān chuh, or

gwa fogla dazane yiwān chuh, he is burning. The root ato būz, hear, when used in the passive means 'see (viii. i. 52). Thus,

gla bāzān chuh, he hears, but. aga fynią rę bāzano yiwăn chuh, he is being seen. 37979 gra bāzane āv (āv, is the irregular past tense of yi), he

was seen. ara fafo būzane yiyi, he will be seen. If we want to express the passive of the verb 'to hear,' we must use a periphrasis. Thus,

atgery ©RT franą būzanas andar yiwān chuh, he is coming

into hearing, he is being heard. The root at gar, work metal, may mean to become hard' in the Passive (viii, i. 53). Thus,

ta fuala garana yiwān chuh, it is being worked, or it is

becoming hard. The root fa ni, take, may mean to have the attention distracted' in the Passive (viji. i. 55). Thus,

fara falar nina yiwān chuh, he is being distracted, or he is being taken.

The root fe hi, take, may mean to be engaged in' in the Passive (viii. i. 56). Thus, ya fara hyane yiwān chuh, he is engaged (in a business), or he is being taken.

The root šo dēs, see, is irregular. Its Passive is formed thus, mano foaia drēth yiwān chuh, he is being seen (viii. i. 54).

In adding this termination ya ana, we must remember that in the case of the verbs far ni, take, fe di, give, fo yi, come, the first qa is elided (viii. ii. 11). Thus, faa faalą ar nina yiwān chuh, be is being taken.

fea foala dina yiwān chuh, he is being given.

fear fogla u yine yiwān chuh, it is being come by him, i.e., he is coming. In the case of other verbs ending in Ti, that vowel becomes ay. Thus,

fa khi, eat, era foaia khyana yiwān chuh, he is being eaten. fe hi, take, a forala yr hyane yiwān chuh, he is being taken feci, drink, ya fala cyana yiwān chuh, it is being drunk.

The Causal Voice. A root is made causal by adding para anāw (viii. iv. 2, 3). Thus, T kar, make; arala karanāw, cause to make. So, in the present tense, tą karān chuh, he makes; ataria F karanāwān chuh, he causes to make.

Exceptions

The root go wuph, fiy, is regular. Thus, g471917 yi wuphanāwān chuh, he causes to fly. But when the causal verb means 'to incite,' the n is changed to 1 (viii. iv. 4). Thus, graig wuphalāwān chuh, he incites.

Intransitive roots containing three akşaras omit the an of gara anāw in forming causals (viii. iv. 7). Thus,

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makes tender. siatia pe cõkharāwān chuh, he

makes contracted.

atat cokhar, be contracted.

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