« السابقةمتابعة »
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.
Part 1.-HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c.
On the Kāçmiri Verb.-By G. A, GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., I.C S.
[Read January, 1899.)
The Kāçmiri Verb is treated in the Akhyāta- and Krdanta-prakriyās of Icvara-kaula's Kacmiraçabdāmsta.
Verbal roots may end either in a consonant or in a vowel. When a root ends in a consonant, the vowel q a is added to assist the
pronunciation. Thus the root aç kar is written at kare. It is still, however, considered to be a root ending in a consonant and is referred to as such. The final ga is dropped before adding the conjugational suffixes. For this reason, throughout this series of papers, I shall so far depart from the rule of strict transliteration, that I shall not write the final pa of roots ending in consonants, although that final y a will be written in the Nāgari character.
When a root ends in a vowel, that vowel is always g i. There only eight of these roots, of which five belong to the first, and three to the third conjugation, as follows,
First Conjugation.-pe khi, eat ; fa ci, drink; fe di, give; fa ni, take ; and ff hi, take. Third Conjugation. — f97 zi, be born; fu pi, fall; and fo yi, come
J. 1. 1
As in the above examples, all verbs will be quoted under their root-forms.
Excepting the verbs fa ni, take, fę di, give, and for yi, come, all verbs whose roots end in vowels change the final şi to 4 ya(ě) throughout (viii. ii. 11). Thus, the present participle of all these verbs is made by adding atą wān to the root. But the present participle of fe khi, eat, is 1917 khyawān, not fearą khiwān. On the other hand, the present participle of fa ni, take, is faala niwan, not wara nyawān. This rule is a most important one, and will be met over and over again in the following pages.
Conjugation. There are three conjugations of verbs. They only differ in the formation of the Causal Voice, and of the past participles and of the tenses derived from them. Their consideration is postponed till these tenses come to be dealt with.
There are three voices: the Active, the Passive, and the Causal.
THE ACTIVE VOICE.
This is formed by adding the conjugational suffixes to the root direct according to the rules to be hereafter detailed.
The PASSIVE VOICE. This is formed by conjugating the oblique form of the verbal noun in eq un, that is to say, the shortened form of the Instrumental Singular which is used before post-positions, and which ends in 9 ane, with the verb for yi, come, which may either precede or follow. Thus, from the verb at kar, make, the verbal noun is tą karun. The oblique form of this is #ta karano, and the Passive is a fo karana yi, be made, literally, come into making. Compare the Hindi fea #crar dēkh'nē mē ātā hai, it comes into seeing, it is seen (viii. i. 19). Examples of the use of the Passive are (viii. i. 50). ca forala pa ranane yiwān chuh bate, the rice is coming
into cooking, i.e., is being cooked.
41779 T foara pāna-y chuh yiwān karans, he, himself, is
being made. Even neuter verbs can take the passive form, without, in this case, changing their meaning (viii. i. 51). Thus,
ortala u zātān chuh; or
example is literally, he is coming into shining.
aga fagra y dazana yiwān chuh, he is burning. The root ato būz, hear, when used in the passive means 'see (viii. i. 52). Thus,
91 y bāzān chuh, he hears, but.
a fauna y bozans yiwan chuh, he is being seen. stora na bozana àv (āv, is the irregular past tense of yi), he
was seen, alta fafa būzana yiyi, he will be seen. If we want to express the passive of the verb 'to hear,' we must use a periphrasis. Thus,
atrate RT forala būzanas andar yiwān chuh, he is coming
into hearing, he is being heard. The root at gar, work metal, may mean to become hard' in the Passive (viii. i. 53). Thus,
ta fula garana yiwān chuh, it is being worked, or it is
becoming hard. The root fæ ni, take, may mean to have the attention distracted' in the Passive (viii. i. 55). Thus,
fara foaia wning yiwan chuh, he is being distracted, or he is being taken.
The root fe hi, take, may mean 'to be engaged in' in the Passive (viii, i. 56). Thus, ya fuata hyane yiwān chuh, he is engaged (in a business), or he is being taken.
The root go dēs, see, is irregular. Its Passive is formed thus, o fala drēth yiwān chuh, he is being seen (viii. i. 54).
In adding this termination ya ane, we must remember that in the case of the verbs fa ni, take, fę di, give, fo yi, come, the first sa is elided (viii. ii. 11). Thus, faa faalą yy nine yiwān chuh, he is being taken.
fea foala dina yiwān chuh, he is being given.
fuar fuqiq ve yine yiwān chuh, it is being come by him, i.e., he is coming. In the case of other verbs ending in ri, that vowel becomes y. Thus,
fa khi, eat, ea faala khyana yiwān chuh, he is being eaten, fe hi, take, wa fuqia hyane yiwān chuh, he is being taken fe ci, drink, ya fara cyana yiwān chuh, it is being drunk.
TAE CAUSAL VOICE.
A root is made causal by adding wala anāw (viii. iv. 2, 3). Thus, 7 kar, make; 77ia karanāw, cause to make. So, in the present tense, mia karān chuh, he makes; a cargla karanāwān chuh, he causes to make.
The root go wuph, fly, is regular. Thus, 9471914 wuphanāwān chuh, he causes to fly. But when the causal verb means to incite, the n is changed to 1 (viii. iv. 4). Thus, geraia wuphalāwān chuh, he incites.
Intransitive roots containing three akşaras omit the 97 an of 19 anāw in forming causals (viii. iv. 7). Thus,
97 wobar, be finished.
ar kātsar, be tawny.
qat191 g wobarāwān chuh, he
finishes. way katsarāwān chuh, he
makes tawny. कुमलावान् कुह kumalawān chuh, he
makes tender. afaciana y cộkharāwān chuh, he
Ha kamal, be tender.
gtar cokhar, be contracted.
potapa tshậts han, be light. taarata tshậtshanāwān chuh,
he makes light. HRE mandach, be ashamed. HR#1917 mandachāwān chuh,
he makes ashamed. 7 wozal, be red.
69 BY wözalāwān chuh, he
makes red. FAC samakh, become visible. Haarala samakhāwān chuh, he
makes visible. 6997 uopaz, be born.
9991191 uopazāwān chuh, he
produces. This exception does not apply to transitive verbs, which are regular. Thus,
ai kamaz, earn.
97 katar, slice.
कमवनावान् बुह kamaranārān chuh,
hę causes to earn. matarata kataranāwān chrih,
he causes to cut in slices. 44TUTIT T kapatanāwān chuh,
he causes to cut.
*92 kapat, cut (clothes).
The root grau wuşn, be hot, also drops the ga an. Thus, gratata U wuşnāwān chuh, he makes hot (viii. iv. 8).
The verbs 9 wuz, be awake; 68 bod, dive; un lār, touch; from pil, arrive; atas kamp, tremble, and tranz, be pleased, add optionally va av, instead of wait anāv (viii. iv. 5, 14). Thus, qui
wuzawān chu-s, or govarala y wuzanāwān chu-s, he wakens him. So atacara kampawān chu-s, or atamata s kõmpanāwān chu-s, he causes him to tremble. The root 98 pras, be born, has three forms (viii. iv. 5, 15); viz. wala prasawān chuh; w 191 prasanāwān chuh, and atala pinawān chuh, he causes to bear children.
The verb fo yi, come, makes its causal gaara ananāw. [This is really the causal of a an, bring]. Thus, Tia Tananāwān chuh, he causes to bring.
The root 4 phat, be split, makes its causal vi phāțawan chuh, or y phātanawān chuh (viii. iv. 17).