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personal pronoun, in Kāçmiri we may optionally add the suffix a no which means 'by him,' just as much as afa tạmi does, and we get maq kąru-n, which also means ' made by him,' or 'he made.' Suppose we want to express who was made by him, and that the person is the speaker, then we can say play bỏh karu-n, 'I was made by him,' i.e., he made me.' Instead, lowever, of böh, we may add the suffix qq as, which means 'I.' We thus get the karu.n-as, ‘I was made by him,' i.e., ‘he made me.' Again, if we wish to emphasise the fact that I was the person made, we can add the suffix for ti, and we get the form qafa karr-n-as-ti, which means, 'I also was made by him,'' he made me also.' Again, if we want to make the verb interrogative, we can add, after all these, the interrogative particle, lā, thus, nappal karu.n-as-ty-ā, was I also made by him ? ' • did he make me also ?'
The above examples will show the freedom with which these suffixes are used in Käshmiri. They can be combined almost ad infini. tum. These suffixes may be divided into two classes, adverbial and pronominal, and in this order, I now proceed to discuss them.
ADVERBIAL Suffixes. These suffixes are added to all verbs. Before all these the final <h of a verbal form is elided (iv. 131). The ordinary rules of sandhi also occur.
Thus į and u before a become y and w respectively, ya (ě) +ā becomes yā, and a tā becomes ā.
1. a 14. This negatives the verb (viii. i. 13). Thus,-
make. TR karān chěh, she atia on karān chěno, she does not makes.
dost not make.
449 pakane, he did not go.
2. er å. This gives an interrogative force to the verb (viii. i. 14).
1 karan chuh, he
करान् वा (for एह+चा,पु+चा) makes.
karān chwā, does he make ? actoç karān chěh (lit. 1 karân chyā, does she chyah), she makes.
UT91 parawā, shall we read p
ritar gayāvā, did he go?
In the first and third persons Feminine, po ay is substituted for 1 ā, when the person addressed is a woman. If a man is addressed, qe is used in the first person Singular, and gr à in the first person Plural, and in the third person.
Thus, *tra v karān chěse, am I (fem.) making ? here a man is addressed. If a woman is addressed, the speaker would say chěsay.
*719 or efo karān chya (chěh +ā) aso, are we (fem.) making ? If a woman is addressed, the speaker must say v2 chěy. See No. 4. 3. Q. This may be substituted for ar ā, in the following cases. (a) In the first person Singular Masculine (viii. i. 15)
tra yo karān chuse (instead of
making ? (6) Always in the first person Singular Feminine, when a
man is addressed (viii. i. 17). Thus,Ta ukaran chěs, I (fem.) TIE karān chèse, am I (fem.) make.
making ? Here the speaker is addressing a man.
If she was addressing a woman she would
say *Tr 94 karän chěsay. (c) Honorifically in the second person Singular and Plural
(viii. i. 15).
pela o karān chukh, thou #tra karãn chukha, does Your makest.
Honour make ? ata fara karān chiwa, you ATT fuq karān chiwa, do your make.
Honours make ? Note here
that the vowel remaing short. 4. ay or, after a vowel, ? y. Used as follows, instead of an å or
(a) In the first person singular and Ploral Feminine, and in
the third person singular and Plural Feminine (viii, i.
17, 18), when a woman is addressed. Thus, TV og karòn chěs, I (fem.) TIF 092 karān chěsay am I (fem.) make.
making? Here the speaker is addressing a woman. If she were addressing a man, she
would say aria ou karān chèse. करान् घर सि karan chen
avą or of kurān chěy asi, are as', we (fem.) make.
we (fem.) making ? *TITOR E karān chěh sõh, 4717 @? @ karān chěy söh, is she she makes.
(fem.) making ? करान् यह निम karan cheh करान् यय् तिम karān ch&y tims, are
time, they (fem.) make. they (fem.) making ? In the three last, the speaker is also addressing a woman. If she were addressing a man, she would say a chya, instead of ra chěy.
(6) In the second person Feminine optionally instead of
ga, when a woman is addressed honorifically (viii. i.
करान राखय् karan chekhay, or करान् (fem.) makest.
o karān chokho, is Your Honour (fem.) making ? Here the speaker is necessarily ad
dressing a woman. ora karān chewe, you करान् यवय karān chāway, or करान् (fem.) make.
04 karān chèwo, are Your Honours (fem.) making ? The speaker is again addressing 5. fa ti (iv. 179). This suffix is used to signify also,' 'indeed.' Thus,
*TI V karān chuh, he atia yra karān chuti, he makes makes,
also. afi kari, he will make. fifa kariti, he will indeed make.
6. ar nā, pa nay (viii. i. 14, 16). This is a compound of a ne (No. 1) and er à (No. 2) or (No. 3), or of a ne, and 4 (No. 4). It gives the force of an interrogative negative, and is used like the separate parts. Thus, करान् कुह karan chuh, he
*TI Wat karān chună, does he makes.
not make ? So #Ta oa1 karān chěnā, does she not make ? afą karyon, he made. qafqat karyõnnā, did he not
make ? afs kari, he will make. aftar karinā, will he not make ? tra og karān chěkh, thou
atla Qet karān chěkhnā, dost (fem.) makest.
thou (fem.) not make ? Tia ay karān chěkhnay, does Your Honour (fem.)
make ? TC17 karān chèw, you ATI karān chěwena, do you (fem.) make.
(fem.) not do ? or 719 0974 karan chèwanay, do Your
Honours (fem.) not make ? 7. pi tyā or pratyay. This is a combination of fo ti, (No. 5) and ar ā (No. 2), or pay (No. 4). It implies a question with emphasis (viii. i. 14). Thus,
*T1 TRT karān chutya, does he make it) ?
(it)? 8. ga sano, gol sanā, grga āsana, used in a question with doubt. If there is an interrogative word also in the sentence, it is added to it. Otherwise it is added to the verb. [ par sanā is not used with a verb].
The or of gat sanā and 9197 ūsane, is suffix No. 2 already described (viii. i. 25, 28). Thus,
त्यवान् 2199 khyawān chwāsane (chuh +āsane), is he really
eating? 199 919 kyāsana (kyāh + sana) khyawān chwā, what, is
he really eating ? WIHT R919 kyāsanā khyawān chuh, what, is he eating ? iz Qaisa 4181a faç bața kaityāsana (kaiti +âsana) āsān chih
how many brahmans are there really ? aceat alfar faana y karsanā bāgi yiwān chuh, at what hour
is he coming ? (kar=when? afar bāgi= Skr. bhāga, a
portion of the day or night).
afasat stę katisanā īs“, where was he ? 9. et sa. This is the vocative particle (vide ante, Vol. lxvii, p. 92). It is used exactly like a san. Thus,
andret alfo kaityāsą (kait: +ă-să) lūkh as«, how many
people were there?
PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 1. Before these as before all other suffixes, the final ph of a verb is elided (iv. 131). So also, an initial & a of a suffix is elided when the verb, either after the elision of <h or not, ends in a vowel (viii, i. 39). Thus, +94 chuh + am becomes first 5+ chu+am, and then .chu +m= 74 chum, there is to me.
2. If the final « kh of a suffix is followed by another pronominal (not an adverbial) suffix commencing with a vowel, the u kh becomes şh (viii. i. 38). Thus,
aniq yrę karān chu-h-as (for chu-kh + as), thou makest for
him. ia re karān chu-h-akh, thou makest for them. 3. The termination qq av becomes ō before suffixes (viii. ii. 18). Thus,
alių karo-th (karav + ath), we shall make thee.