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personal pronoun, in Kāçmiri we may optionally add the suffix a no which means 'by him,' just as much as afa tạmi does, and we get maq kąru-n, which also means ' made by him,' or 'he made.' Suppose we want to express who was made by him, and that the person is the speaker, then we can say play bỏh karu-n, 'I was made by him,' i.e., he made me.' Instead, lowever, of böh, we may add the suffix qq as, which means 'I.' We thus get the karu.n-as, ‘I was made by him,' i.e., ‘he made me.' Again, if we wish to emphasise the fact that I was the person made, we can add the suffix for ti, and we get the form qafa karr-n-as-ti, which means, 'I also was made by him,'' he made me also.' Again, if we want to make the verb interrogative, we can add, after all these, the interrogative particle, lā, thus, nappal karu.n-as-ty-ā, was I also made by him ? ' • did he make me also ?'

The above examples will show the freedom with which these suffixes are used in Käshmiri. They can be combined almost ad infini. tum. These suffixes may be divided into two classes, adverbial and pronominal, and in this order, I now proceed to discuss them.

ADVERBIAL Suffixes. These suffixes are added to all verbs. Before all these the final <h of a verbal form is elided (iv. 131). The ordinary rules of sandhi also occur.

Thus į and u before a become y and w respectively, ya (ě) +ā becomes , and a tā becomes ā.

1. a 14. This negatives the verb (viii. i. 13). Thus,-
करान् कुर karan chuh, he Tia Ta karān chuna, he does not
makes.

make.
arrafa karān chih, they are fwa karān chine, they do not
make.

make. TR karān chěh, she atia on karān chěno, she does not makes.

make.
myra og karān chěkh, thou 911 karān chěkhne, thou
(fem.) makest.

dost not make.
af kari, he will make. aira karine, he will not make.
asia gayov, he went. ataa gayovne, he did not go.
to pak, he went.

449 pakane, he did not go.

2. er å. This gives an interrogative force to the verb (viii. i. 14).

Thus,

1 karan chuh, he

करान् वा (for एह+चा,पु+चा) makes.

karān chwā, does he make ? actoç karān chěh (lit. 1 karân chyā, does she chyah), she makes.

make P
oft kari, he will make. waf karyā, will he make ?
e parav, we shall read.

UT91 parawā, shall we read p
wafa karyon, he made. nafar karyānā, made he?
ar karun, he made. moal karunā, made he?
shta gayov, he went.

ritar gayāvā, did he go?
tipake, he went. doar pak*ā, did he go?

In the first and third persons Feminine, po ay is substituted for 1 ā, when the person addressed is a woman. If a man is addressed, qe is used in the first person Singular, and gr à in the first person Plural, and in the third person.

Thus, *tra v karān chěse, am I (fem.) making ? here a man is addressed. If a woman is addressed, the speaker would say chěsay.

*719 or efo karān chya (chěh +ā) aso, are we (fem.) making ? If a woman is addressed, the speaker must say v2 chěy. See No. 4. 3. Q. This may be substituted for ar ā, in the following cases. (a) In the first person Singular Masculine (viii. i. 15)

Thus, -
yo karān chus, I make.

tra yo karān chuse (instead of
WTC ye karan chusă), am I

making ? (6) Always in the first person Singular Feminine, when a

man is addressed (viii. i. 17). Thus,Ta ukaran chěs, I (fem.) TIE karān chèse, am I (fem.) make.

making ? Here the speaker is addressing a man.

If she was addressing a woman she would

say *Tr 94 karän chěsay. (c) Honorifically in the second person Singular and Plural

(viii. i. 15).

pela o karān chukh, thou #tra karãn chukha, does Your makest.

Honour make ? ata fara karān chiwa, you ATT fuq karān chiwa, do your make.

Honours make ? Note here

that the vowel remaing short. 4. ay or, after a vowel, ? y. Used as follows, instead of an å or

(a) In the first person singular and Ploral Feminine, and in

the third person singular and Plural Feminine (viii, i.

17, 18), when a woman is addressed. Thus, TV og karòn chěs, I (fem.) TIF 092 karān chěsay am I (fem.) make.

making? Here the speaker is addressing a woman. If she were addressing a man, she

would say aria ou karān chèse. करान् घर सि karan chen

avą or of kurān chěy asi, are as', we (fem.) make.

we (fem.) making ? *TITOR E karān chěh sõh, 4717 @? @ karān chěy söh, is she she makes.

(fem.) making ? करान् यह निम karan cheh करान् यय् तिम karān ch&y tims, are

time, they (fem.) make. they (fem.) making ? In the three last, the speaker is also addressing a woman. If she were addressing a man, she would say a chya, instead of ra chěy.

(6) In the second person Feminine optionally instead of

ga, when a woman is addressed honorifically (viii. i.

16). Thus,
*TID karūn chěkh, thou

करान राखय् karan chekhay, or करान् (fem.) makest.

o karān chokho, is Your Honour (fem.) making ? Here the speaker is necessarily ad

dressing a woman. ora karān chewe, you करान् यवय karān chāway, or करान् (fem.) make.

04 karān chèwo, are Your Honours (fem.) making ? The speaker is again addressing 5. fa ti (iv. 179). This suffix is used to signify also,' 'indeed.' Thus,

women,

*TI V karān chuh, he atia yra karān chuti, he makes makes,

also. afi kari, he will make. fifa kariti, he will indeed make.

6. ar nā, pa nay (viii. i. 14, 16). This is a compound of a ne (No. 1) and er à (No. 2) or (No. 3), or of a ne, and 4 (No. 4). It gives the force of an interrogative negative, and is used like the separate parts. Thus, करान् कुह karan chuh, he

*TI Wat karān chună, does he makes.

not make ? So #Ta oa1 karān chěnā, does she not make ? afą karyon, he made. qafqat karyõnnā, did he not

make ? afs kari, he will make. aftar karinā, will he not make ? tra og karān chěkh, thou

atla Qet karān chěkhnā, dost (fem.) makest.

thou (fem.) not make ? Tia ay karān chěkhnay, does Your Honour (fem.)

not

make ? TC17 karān chèw, you ATI karān chěwena, do you (fem.) make.

(fem.) not do ? or 719 0974 karan chèwanay, do Your

Honours (fem.) not make ? 7. pi tyā or pratyay. This is a combination of fo ti, (No. 5) and ar ā (No. 2), or pay (No. 4). It implies a question with emphasis (viii. i. 14). Thus,

*T1 TRT karān chutya, does he make it) ?
afqaar karyāntyā, did he make (it) ?
afiri karityā, will he make (it) ?
#tiq 74 karān chěwatyay, do Your Honours (fem.) make

(it)? 8. ga sano, gol sanā, grga āsana, used in a question with doubt. If there is an interrogative word also in the sentence, it is added to it. Otherwise it is added to the verb. [ par sanā is not used with a verb].

The or of gat sanā and 9197 ūsane, is suffix No. 2 already described (viii. i. 25, 28). Thus,

त्यवान् 2199 khyawān chwāsane (chuh +āsane), is he really

eating? 199 919 kyāsana (kyāh + sana) khyawān chwā, what, is

he really eating ? WIHT R919 kyāsanā khyawān chuh, what, is he eating ? iz Qaisa 4181a faç bața kaityāsana (kaiti +âsana) āsān chih

how many brahmans are there really ? aceat alfar faana y karsanā bāgi yiwān chuh, at what hour

is he coming ? (kar=when? afar bāgi= Skr. bhāga, a

portion of the day or night).
aceat fafa karsană yiyi, when will he come ?
gagal gresta kūt'sanā āsahın, how many may there be ?

afasat stę katisanā īs“, where was he ? 9. et sa. This is the vocative particle (vide ante, Vol. lxvii, p. 92). It is used exactly like a san. Thus,

andret alfo kaityāsą (kait: +ă-) lūkh as«, how many

people were there?

कु+म्

PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 1. Before these as before all other suffixes, the final ph of a verb is elided (iv. 131). So also, an initial & a of a suffix is elided when the verb, either after the elision of <h or not, ends in a vowel (viii, i. 39). Thus, +94 chuh + am becomes first 5+ chu+am, and then .chu +m= 74 chum, there is to me.

2. If the final « kh of a suffix is followed by another pronominal (not an adverbial) suffix commencing with a vowel, the u kh becomes şh (viii. i. 38). Thus,

aniq yrę karān chu-h-as (for chu-kh + as), thou makest for

him. ia re karān chu-h-akh, thou makest for them. 3. The termination qq av becomes ō before suffixes (viii. ii. 18). Thus,

alių karo-th (karav + ath), we shall make thee.

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