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personal pronoun, in Kāçmiri we may optionally add the suffix an, which means 'by him, just as much as

afa tạmi does, and we get কব fra kæru-n, which also means 'made by him,' or 'he made.' Suppose

, we want to express who was made by him, and that the person is the speaker, then we can say yana bõh karu-n, 'I was made by him, i.e., ‘he made me.' Instead, however, of běh, we may add the suffix rę as, which means 'I.' We thus get pa kara-n-as, “I was made by him,' i.e., ‘he made me.' Again, if we wish to emphasise the fact that I was the person made, we can add the suffix fa ti, and we get the form aqaafa kara.n-as-ti, which means, “I also was made by him,'' he made me also.' Again, if we want to make the verb interro. gative, we can add, after all these, the interrogative particle, yr ā, thus, nappt kạru--as-ty-a, " was I also made by him ?' did he make me also ?'

The above examples will show the freedom with which these suffixes are used in Kāshmiri. They can be combined almost ad infini. tum. These suffixes may be divided into two classes, adverbial and pronominal, and in this order, I now proceed to discuss them.

ADVERBIAL SUFFIXES.

These suffixes are added to all verbs. Before all these the final h of a verbal form is elided (iv. 131). The ordinary rules of sandhi also occur.

Thus i and u before a become y and w respectively, ya (ě) +ā becomes ya, and a tā becomes ā.

1. one. This negatives the verb (viii. i. 13). Thus,
करान् कुर karan chuh, he *Tia wa karān chuna, he does not
makes.

make.
acra fær karān chih, they arra fwa karān china, they do not
make.

make. Tak karān chèh, she Pia a karān chěna, she does not makes.

make. afira O karān chěkh, thou ATI O karān chěkhne, thou (fem.) makest.

dost not make. ar kari, he will make. afta karine, he will not make. eta gayov, he went. 1977a gayovne, he did not go. 4 pak“, he went. wa pakuna, he did not go.

2. er á. This gives an interrogative force to the verb (viii. i. 14). Thus,

Tra y karān chuh, he करान् वा (for एड+चा,पु+चा) makes.

karān chwă, does he make ? arra aç karān chěh (lit. 771 kardn chyā, does she chyah), she makes.

make P
#fr kari, he will make. waf karyā, will he make ?
e parav, we shall read.

utar parawā, sball we read P
Fafa karyōn, he made. gafar karyonā, made he?
*T karun, he made. aral karunā, made he ?
JTOTT gayov, he went.

rutar gayāvā, did he go?
pako

, he went. agar pakā, did he go? In the first and third persons Feminine, qy ay is substituted for 1 à, when the person addressed is a woman. If a man is addressed, ga is used in the first person Singular, and car à in the first person Plural, and in the third person.

Thus, *Ta v karān chěsa, am I (fem.) making ? here a man is addressed. If a woman is addressed, the speaker would say 99 chěsay.

*017 O efe kardn chya (chěh +ă) as', are we (fem.) making? If a woman is addressed, the speaker must say og chěy. See No. 4. 3. &. This may be substituted for at ā, in the following cases. (a) In the first person Singular Masculine (viii. i. 15)

Thus,-
1 g karãn chus, I make.

*tra yo karān chuse (instead of

WTI FT karän chusā), am I

making ? (6) Always in the first person Singular Feminine, when a

man is addressed (viii. i. 17). Thus,-
mara ve kardn chěs, I (fem.) TIĘ W karān chěsa, am I (fem.)
make.

making ? Here the speaker is
addressing a man.
addressing a woman she would

Bay Về Đi 4 karām chẽsay.
(c) Honorifically in the second person Singular and Plural

(viii. i. 15).

If she was

man, she

Takarān chukh, thou Tra ya karān chukha, does Your makest.

Honour make ? 719 fæ karān chiwa, you ATTTT fra karān chiwa, do your make.

Honours make ? Note here

that the vowel remains short. 4. 9 ay or, after a vowel, ? y. Used as follows, instead of qr å or a

(a) In the first person Singular and Plural Feminine, and in

the third person Singular and Plural Feminine (viii, i.

17, 18), when a woman is addressed. Thus,TTT karon chěs, I (fem.) IT 94 karān chěsay am I (fem.) make.

making? Here the speaker is addressing a woman. If she were addressing a

would say tia o karān chèse. करान् घर सि karan chah 19 or f4 kurān chěy asi, are as', we (fem.) make.

we (fem.) making ? TraOF By karān chěh sõh,

*TIE? E karān chěy söh, is she she makes.

(fem.) making ? करान् यह निम karān chen करान् व्यय निम karān chéy tims, are

timo, they (fem.) make. they (fem.) making ? In the three last, the speaker is also addressing a woman. If she were addressing a man, she would say o chyā, instead of a chěy.

(1) In the second person Feminine optionally instead of

qa, when a woman is addressed honorifically (viii. i.

16). Thus,
Ca sự karäm chekh, thon

करान् बखय् karān chekhay, or करान् (fem.) makest.

o karān chokh", is Your Honour (fem.) making? Here the speaker is necessarily ad

dressing a woman. ora ya karān chěwe, you करान् खवय् karān cheway, or करान (fem.) make.

ya karān chèwo, are Your Honours (fem.) making ? The speaker is again addressing

women.

5. fa ti (iv. 179). This suffix is used to signify also,' 'indeed.' Thus, –

tra karān chuh, he ara yfir karān chuti, he makes makes,

also. aft kari, he will make. afifa kariti, he will indeed make.

6. Ji nā, ga nay (viii. i. J4, 16). This is a compound of a no (No. 1) and er à (No. 2) or 4 (No. 3), or of a ne, and qp (No. 4). It gives the force of an interrogative negative, and is used like the separate parts. Thus,करान् कुह karan chuh, he

19 ya karān chunā, does he makes.

not make ? So wią o91 karān chěnā, does she not make ? walą karyon, he made. anafaat karyõnnā, did he not

make ? af kari, he will make. afiar karinā, will he not make ? 47 24 karũ chekh, thou

07TT et karān chěkhnā, dost (fem.) makest.

thou (fem.) not make ? TI?
en karān chěkhnay, does
Your Honour (fem.) not

make ?
41a o karān chèwe, you करान् छावना karān chwend, do

you (fem.) make.

(fem.) pot do ? or otra 9747 kurăm chiếud nay, do Your

Honours (fem.) not make ? 7. 2 tyā or mu tyay. This is a combination of fa ti, (No. 5) and ar ā (No. 2), or repay (No. 4). It implies a question with emphasis (viii. i. 14). Thus,

*TIT ya karān chutya, does he make it)?
afara karyāntyā, did he make (it)?
afiri karityā, will he make (it) ?
atia on karān chèwè tyay, do Your Honours (fem.) make

(it)? 8. ga sano, ya sanā, qrea āsana, used in a question with doubt. If there is an interrogative word also in the sentence, it is added to it. Otherwise it is added to the verb. ( 991 sanā is not used with a verb].

The ā of gat sana and qiga āsane, is suffix No. 2 already described (viii. i. 25, 28). Thus,

1 ra khyawān chwāsane (chuh + āsana), is he really

eating? 1997 919 & kyāsane (kyāh + sana) khyawān chwā, what, is

he really eating ? 1971 @ua y kyāsanā khyawān chuh, what, is he eating? iz Qarga qiela faz bata kaityāsane (kaiti +āsana) āsān chih how many

brahmans are there really ? atuar alfar forana yy karsanā bāgi yiwān chuh, at what hour

is he coming ? (kar=when ? alfa bągi = Skr. bhāga, a

portion of the day or night).
year fofa karsană yiyi, when will he come ?
afagar creslą kūtisanā āsahăn, how many may there be ?
afaqat te katisanā āsu, where was he?

चोस् 9. et sa. This is the vocative particle (vide ante, Vol. Ixvii, p. 92). It is used exactly like ga sans. Thus,कैत्यासा

alfe kaityāsı (kaiti +ă-) lūkh às•, how many people were there?

PRONOMINAL Suffixes. 1. Before these as before all other suffixes, the final <h of a verb is elided (iv. 131). So also, an initial e a of a suffix is elided when the verb, either after the elision of Th or not, ends in a vowel (viii, i. 39). Thus, +94 chuh + am becomes first 5+#4 chu + am, and then +4 chu+m= 4 chum, there is to me.

2. If the final kh of a suffix is followed by another pronominal (not an adverbial) suffix commencing with a vowel, thekh becomes ph (viii. i. 38). Thus,

la re karān chu-h-as (for chu-kh + as), thou makest for

him. 1a TE karān chu-h-akh, thou makest for them. 3. The termination va av becomes o Ō before suffixes (viii. ii. 18). Thus,

aty karo-th (karav + ath), we shall make thee.

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