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4. The termination « iv becomes yü before suffixes. Thus, –

karyū-m (for kariv + am), make ye for me, or make ye me. When suffixes are added to the root direct, in the second singular imperative, a u is inserted (viii. i. 16). Thus,T kar, make thon.

99% karu-m, make thou for me,

or make me. When suffixes are added to the 3rd person singular of the Future, indicative, they a of the suffix is not elided. Thus, kari, he will make, mają kary-as, not afre kari-s, he will make for him. This does not hold with the suffixes of the second person. Thus, afrekari-y, he will make for thee, afra kari-wo, he will make for you.

[When interrogative and other adverbial suffixes are added to the verb, they follow the pronominal suffix. E.g., 1 chu-m-ā, is there to me ? So ĐHI 7 chu-m-āsano, oe.].

Some verbs are never used without pronominal suffixes of the dative case (viii. i. 45). These are,

tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
** phoç, be inwardly wrathful.
y phuh, be inwardly wrathful.

marts, be inwardly wrathful.
T wuts, be burnt.
for phits, forget.

ają tyamb, look eagerly (viii. iii. 45). Moreover these verbs are always conjugated in the feminine, whether the subject is masculine or feminine. They are then used as impersonal verbs. Thus,

Tia o tsarān chě-s, lit. there is inward anger to him. I.e.,

he is inwardly angry. Similarly, कशान् च्यम् phācān ché-8, फुहान् व्यस् phuhān ché-s, मर्लान् o martsān chě-s. Again yrą 04 tsarān chě-m, there is inward anger to me,

I am inwardly angry, and so on. Again, Triq 7 wutsān chě-s, there is burning to him, i.e., he is burning (inwardly); fura o phitsān chě-s, there is forgetfulness to him, he forgets : ajaja 64 tyambān chě-s, he looks eagerly.

Sometimes full pronouns are used instead of suffixes (viii. i. 46). Thus,

afwy yą OF tamis tsarān chěh, there is inward anger to

him. The verb te gatsh, be proper, be desirable, is also used with the dative (viii. i. 47). Thus,

afhaa y for uret tamis gatshăn chuh zi parah), to him it is desirable that should read. He thinks it proper that I should read. This is only in the third person. For the other persons always, and for the third person optionally, suffixes are used when they exist (viii. i. 48). Thus,

JIU Tu gatshān chu-m, it is proper for me.
Na y gatshān chuh (no suffix), it is proper for us.
la gatshăn chu-y, it is proper for thee.
गवान् कुव

1 ya gatshān chu-we, it is proper for you.
Jala gatshän chu-s, it is proper for him.

pia to gatshān chu-kh, it is proper for them. This applies only to the present tense.

FIRST PERSON, The suffix of the Nominative Singular is yg as, which is not used with the Future tense (viii. i. 43). Thus,

ATITI U karān chu-s, I make.
iga paku-s, I went.
aifaq karyo-n-as, I (as) was made (karyo) by him (an). I.e.,

he made me. But at kare, not ang kara-s, I shall make. ay kara-s means ' I shall make for him' (vide post, third person).

For other cases of the singular, the suffix is 9ų am (viii, i. 24). Thus,

pia u karān chu-m, he makes me, or for me.
41a fai karān chi-m, they make me, or for me.

**ų karu-m, made by me, I made. There are no Plural Suffixes of the first person : the full pronouns are used instead (viii. i. 44). Thus,–

aria e karān chuh asě, he makes us, and so on.
J. 1. 3

SECOND PERSON. For the Nominative Singular the suffix is qa akh, which is used as follows (viii. i. 36). Thus,

Takarān chhu-kh, thou makest. a kara-kh, thou wilt make. atela karaha-kh, (if) thou hadst made. ogą paku-kh, thou wentest. nyhe karu-m-akh, thou wast made by me, i.e., I made thee.

anafaa karyō-n-akh, thou wast made by him, i.e., he made thee. For the Accusative Singular, qe ath is used in the first person singular and plural (vii. i. 37). Thus,

artą kara-th, I shall make thee.
adią karā-th (karavtath), we shall make thee.
Tią my karān chu-s-ath, I make thee.

atia feru karān chi-th, we make thee. We cannot use this suffix with the third person. Thus, we cannot say aftrą kari-th, he will make thee. We must use instead the suffix ay, which properly belongs to the Dative. Thus,

Er afro suh kari-y, he will make thee, or for thee.
fay atau tim karan-ay, they will make thee, or for thee.
TE FT14 T7 suh karān chu-y, he makes thee, or for thee.

fæą aria fæe tim karān chi-y, they make thee, or for thee. The same suffix (qq ath) is also used for the Agent Singular with the past tenses of transitive verbs. Thus,

atų karu-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest.

nitq karyo-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest. For the Dative Singular and also (when the verb is in the third person) for the Accusative Singular, the suffix 94 ay is used (viii. i. 40). Thus,

417 karān chu-y, he makes for thee, or thee.
TI T94 karān chu-8-ay, I make for thee.
19 fry karān chi-y, we make for thee.

atrą fa karān chi-y, they make for thee, or thee.

afie kari-y, he will make for thee, or thee. This form is liable to certain changes in the Aorist and Pluperfect tenses of verbs. These will be found duly explained in the proper place. With the Past Conditional this suffix may have the force of the Accusative.

For all cases of the Plural, the suffix is a 29. Thus, – Nominative

aria færa karān chi-we, you make. Accusative or Dative

*Tiara karān chu-we, he makes you, or for you.
Tių fra karān chi-we, they make you, or for you.

*719 8a karān chu-8-we, I make you, or for you. Agent

atra kara-we, made by you, you made.

THIRD PERSON.
There is no pronominal suffix of the Nominatire Singular or Plural.

The pronominal suffix of the Dative Singular is of as (viii. i. 33). Thus,- (masculine).

TIY yo karān chu-s-as, I make for him.
#via karān chu-h-as (chu-kh + as, thou makest for him.
Atia re karān chu-s, he makes for him.
14 fog karān chi-s, we make for him.
atia fua karān chi-wa-s, you make for him.
TIU faç karān chi-s, they make for him.

kara-s, I shall make for him.
So also for the feminine, arra u karān che-s-as.

[This suffix is also used for the Accusative, when the verb is in the third person. Thus, ata karān chu-s, he makes him, 2017 fary karān chi-s, they make him).

For other oblique cases of the singular, qq an is used (viii. i. 34).
Thus,-
Accusative-

qua wa karān chu-h-aw (chu-kh+an), you make him.
@ TT khyawan chu-h-an, you eat him.

c# as is however, used for gą an with the third person. Thus, frla og karān chu-s, not atia ya karán chu-n, he makes him. Agent

mtą karu-n (Her karu + gą an), made by him, he made. For all cases of the plural, the suffix is qē akh (viii. i. 35). Thus,

atia karān chu-s-akh, I make for them, or I make them. atia ya karān chu-kh, he makes for them, or makes them. at kạru-kh, made by them, they made.

Moods and Tenses.
The Kāçmiri verb has four Moods, vis., the Indicative, the Impera-
tive, the Benedictive, and the Conditional.
The Indicative Mood is usually credited with eight tenses, viz.,-

1. The Present.
2. The Imperfect.
3. The Future.
4. The Past.
5. The Aorist.
6. The pluperfect.
7. The Perfect.

8. The Periphrastic Pluperfect. Of these, Nos. 2, 7, and 8, are not discussed by Içvara-kaula in his grammar. I shall, however, give short notices of them for the sake of completeness. Nos. 1, 2, 7, and 8, are all periphrastic tenses, made up of Participles conjugated with auxiliary verbs. In No. 1, the Present participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the auxiliary verb, and in No. 2, it is conjugated with the Past tense of the same.

In
No. 7, the Past participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the
same verb, and in No. 8, with its Past tense.
The Imperative Mood has three tenses, viz.,-

1. The Present.
2. The Future.

3. The Past.
The Present Imperative has two forms, a Simple, and a Modified.

The Benedictive Mood has one tense, which may be called the Future.

The Conditional Mood has two tenses, viz.,--
1. A Present-Future. This is the same 2. A Past.

in form as the Future Indicative.

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