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4. The termination a iv becomes a yū before suffixes. Thus,

enq karyū-m (for kariv + am), make ye for me, or make ye me. When suffixes are added to the root direct, in the second singular imperative, a 5 u is inserted (viii. i. 16). Thus,at kar, make thou.

karu-m, make thou for me,

or make me. When suffixes are added to the 3rd person singular of the Future, indicative, the q a of the suffix is not elided. Thus, afir kari, he will make, woją kary-as, not afrą kari-s, he will make for him. This does not hold with the suffixes of the second person. Thus, afrą kari-y, he will make for thee, arra kari-we, he will make for you.

[When interrogative and other adverbial suffixes are added to the verb, they follow the pronominal suffix. E.g., a chu-m-ă, is there to me ? So Tiga chu-m-äsano, &c.].

Some verbs are never used without pronominal suffixes of the dative case (viii. i. 45). These are,

tsar, be inwardly wrathful. a phoç, be inwardly wrathful. y phuh, be inwardly wrathful.

marts, be inwardly wrathful.

wuts, be burnt.

799 phits, forget.

pia tyamb, look eagerly (viii. iii. 45). Moreover these verbs are always conjugated in the feminine, whether the subject is masculiue or feminine. They are then used as impersonal verbs. Thus,

pia e tsarān chě-s, lit. there is inward anger to him. I.e.,

he is inwardly angry. Similarly, कमान च्यस् phogān ché-8, फुहान् व्यस् phuhān ché-s, मान् go martsān chě-s. Again yra 24 tsarān chè-m, there is inward anger to me, I am inwardly angry, and so on. Again, gwią o wutsān chě-s, there is burning to him, i.e., he is burning (inwardly); fryra o phitsān chě-s, there is forgetfulness to him, he forgets : para o tyambän che-s, he looks eagerly.

Sometimes full pronouns are used instead of suffixes (viii. i. 46). Thus,

afhę ma tamis tsarān chěh, there is inward anger to

him. The verb te gatsh, be proper, be desirable, is also used with the dative (viii. i. 47). Thus,

afhę nia yy for anet tamis gatshăn chuh zi parahậ, to him it is desirable that I should read. He thinks it proper that I should read. This is only in the third person. For the other persons always, and for the third person optionally, suffixes are used when they exist (viii. i. 48). Thus,

JRIT yu gatshān chu-m, it is proper for me.
19 gatshān chuh (no suffix), it is proper for us.
JIT Tgatshăn chu-y, it is proper for thee.
ugra gatshān chu-we, it is proper for you.
uterq i gatshăn chu-s, it is proper for him.

I ya gatshăn chu-kh, it is proper for them.
This applies only to the present tense.

FIRST PERSON. The suffix of the Nominative Singular is yg as, which is not used with the Future tense (viii. i. 43). Thus,

*Tip # karān chu-s, I make.
og pąku-s, I went.
patay karyo-n-as, I (as) was made (karyo) by him (an). I.e.,

he made me. But o kare, not atę kara-s, I shall make. Tę kara-s means ' I shall make for him' (vide post, third person).

For other cases of the singular, the suffix is 94 am (viji, i. 24). Thus,

pia u karān chu-m, he makes me, or for me.
avia foi karān chi-m, they make me, or for me.

HTą kạru-m, made by me, I made. There are no Plural Suffixes of the first person : the full pronoung are used instead (viii. i. 44). Thus,

aria 9 kurān chuh asě, he makes 118, and so on.
J. 1. 3

SECOND PERSON. For the Nominative Singular the suffix is qe akh, which is used as follows (viii. i. 36). Thus,

11a e karān chhu-kh, thou makest.

kara-kh, thou wilt make. arula karahấ-kh, (if) thon hadst made. iga paku-kh, thou wentest. atha karu-m-akh, thou wast made by me, i.e., I made thee.

wafaa karyo-n-akh, thou wast made by him, i.e., he made thee. For the Accusative Singular, ve ath is used in the first person singular and plural (viii. i. 37). Thus,

kara-th, I shall make thee.
adą karā-th (karav+ath), we shall make thee.
* 94 karān chu-s-ath, I make thee.

atia feu karān chi-th, we make thee. We cannot use this suffix with the third person. Thus, we cannot say frų kari-th, he will make thee. We must use instead the suffix q? ay, which properly belongs to the Dative. Thus,

afry suh kari-y, he will make thee, or for thee. faqat tim karan-ay, they will make thee, or for thee. 7 ata o suh karān chu-y, he makes thee, or for thee.

fæą aria fry tim karān chi-y, they make thee, or for thee. The same suffix (4 ath) is also used for the Agent Singular with the past tenses of transitive verbs. Thus,

aty kąru-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest.

mata karyō-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest. For the Dative Singular and also (when the verb is in the third person) for the Accusative Singular, the suffix 4 ay is used (viii. i. 40). Thus,

471a ra karān chu-y, he makes for thee, or thee.
4T1 999 karān chu-s-ay, I make for thee.
quia fær karān chi-y, we make for thee.

#tia fua karan chi-y, they make for thee, or thee.

afry kari-y, he will make for thee, or thee. This form is liable to certain changes in the Aorist and Pluperfect tenses of verbs. These will be found duly explained in the proper place. With the Past Conditional this suffix may have the force of the Accusative.

For all cases of the Plural, the suffix is a wa. Thus, – Nominative

ara fæą karān chi-we, you make. Accusative or Dative

quia ya karān chu-we, he makes you, or for you.
atią færa karān chi-we, they make you, or for you.

*717 karān chu-8-we, I make you, or for you.
Agent -
nya kar*.we, made by you, you made.

THIRD PERSON.
There is no pronominal suffix of the Nominatire Singular or Plural.

The pronominal suffix of the Dative Singular is op as (viii. i. 33). Thus,- (masculine).

TIT T karān chu-s-as, I make for him.
*Tia y karān chu-h-as (chu-kh + as, thou makest for him.
19 ye karān chu-s, he makes for him.
*714 fre karān chi-s, we make for him.
aria fway karān chi-wa-s, you make for him.
tių fury karān chi-s, they make for him.

kara-s, I shall make for him.
So also for the feminine, para quę karān che-s-as.

[This suffix is also used for the Accusative, when the verb is in the third person. Thus, tra 8 karān chu-s, he makes him, 4719 fog karān chi-s, they make him).

For other oblique cases of the singular, 97 an is used (viii. i. 34). Thus, Accusativeartiq pa karān chu-h-an (chu-kh +an), you make him.

ya khyawăn chu-h-an, you eat him.

c# as is however, used for gą an with the third person. Thus, kra u karān chu-s, not atia ya kardn chu-n, he makes him. Agent

ną kąru-n ( air kąru +9q an), made by him, he made. For all cases of the plural, the suffix is q akh (viji. i. 35). Thus,

atia ne karān chu-s-akh, I make for them, or I make them.
ætla a karān chu-kh, he makes for them, or makes them.
*Ta karu-kh, made by them, they made.

Moods and Tenses.
The Kāçmiri verb has four Moods, viz., the Indicative, the Impera-
tive, the Benedictive, and the Conditional.
The Indicative Mood is usually credited with eight tenses, viz.,-

1. The Present.
2. The Imperfect.
3. The Future.
4. The Past.
5. The Aorist.
6. The pluperfect.
7. The Perfect.

8. The Periphrastic Pluperfect. Of these, Nos. 2, 7, and 8, are not discussed by İçvara-kaula in his grammar. I shall, however, give short notices of them for the sake of completeness. Nos. 1, 2, 7, and 8, are all periphrastic tenses, made op of Participles conjugated with auxiliary verbs. In No. 1, the Present participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the auxiliary verb, and in No. 2, it is conjugated with the Past tense of the same. In No. 7, the Past participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the same verb, and in No. 8, with its Past tense. The Imperative Mood has three tenses, viz.,

1. The Present.
2. The Future.

3. The Past.
The Present Imperative has two forms, a Simple, and a Modified.

The Benedictive Mood has one tense, which may be called the Future.

The Conditional Mood has two tenses, viz.,-
1. A Present-Future. This is the same 2. A Past.

in form as the Future Indicative.

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