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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.
Part 1.-HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c.
On the Kāçmiri Verb.—By G. A. GRIERSON, C.I.E., Pu.D., I.C S.
[Read January, 1899.)
The Kāçmiri Verb is treated in the Akhyāta- and Krdanta-prakriyās of Içvara-kaula’s Kaçmīraçabdāmsta.
Verbal roots may end either in a consonant or in a vowel. When a root ends in a consonant, the vowel q a is added to assist the pronunciation. Thus the root aç kar is written a kare. It is still, however, considered to be a root ending in a consonant and is referred to as such. The final e a is dropped before adding the conjugational suffixes. For this reason, throughout this series of papers, I shall so far depart from the rule of strict transliteration, that I shall not write the final a of roots ending in consonants, although that final y a will be written in the Nāgari character.
When a root ends in a vowel, that vowel is always g i. There are only eight of these roots, of which five belong to the first, and three to the third conjugation, as follows,
First Conjugation.-fra khi, eat ; fe ci, drink; fc di, give; far ni, take; and fs hi, take. Third Conjugation. - f zi, be born ; fu pi, fall; and fu yi, come
As in the above examples, all verbs will be quoted under their root-forms.
Excepting the verbs fa ni, take, fę di, give, and fo yi, come, all verbs whose roots end in vowels change the final rito e ya(ě) throughout (viii. ii. 11). Thus, the present participle of all these verbs is made by adding alą wān to the root. But the present participle of fæ khi, eat, is eaia khyawān, not feara khiwān. On the other hand, the present participle of fa ni, take, is faala niwan, not 7214 nyawān. This rule is a most important one, and will be met over and over again in the following pages.
Conjugation There are three conjugations of verbs. They only differ in the formation of the Causal Voice, and of the past participles and of the tenses derived from them. Their consideration is postponed till these tenses come to be dealt with.
There are three voices : the Active, the Passive, and the Causal.
THE ACTIVE VOICE.
This is formed by adding the conjugational suffixes to the root direct according to the rules to be hereafter detailed.
The Passive VOICE. This is formed by conjugating the oblique form of the verbal noun in eq un, that is to say, the shortened form of the Instrumental Singular which is used before post-positions, and which ends in ya ana, with the verb fu yi, come, which may either precede or follow. Thus, from the verb 47 kar, make, the verbal noun is a karun. The oblique form of this is #ta karano, and the Passive is ara fa karane yi, be made, literally, come into making. Compare the Hindi faqat dēkh'nē mē ātā hai, it comes into seeing, it is seen (viii. i. 19). Examples of the use of the Passive are (viii. i. 50). Ta fala ya ranana yiwān chuh bato, the rice is coming
into cooking, i.e., is being cooked,
479 TY fara pāna-y chuh yiwān karan, he, himself, is
being made. Even neuter verbs can take the passive form, without, in this case, changing their meaning (vü. i. 51). Thus,
taia y zētān chuh ; or
example is literally, he is coming into shining.
coa faala dazana yiwān chuh, he is burning. The root ato būz, hear, when used in the passive means 'see (viii. i. 52). Thus,–
911 bāzān chuh, he hears, but. .
was seen, aleta fofu būzana yiyi, he will be seen. If we want to express the passive of the verb 'to hear,' we must use a periphrasis. Thus,
atoare ORI forgia būzanas andar yiwān chuh, he is coming
into hearing, he is being heard. The root at gar, work metal, may mean 'to become hard' in the Passive (viii. i. 53). Thus,
ca fuala y garana yiwān chuh, it is being worked, or it is
becoming hard. The root fa ni, take, may mean to have the attention distracted' in the Passive (viii. i. 55). Thus, -
fara foaia y nine yiwān chuh, he is being distracted, or he is being taken.
The root ff hi, take, may mean 'to be engaged in' in the Passive (viii, i. 56). Thus, wa foaia hyane yiwān chuh, he is engaged (in a business), or he is being taken.
The root šo dēs, see, is irregular. Its Passive is formed thus, o faaia drēth yiwān chuh, he is being seen (viii. i. 54).
In adding this termination a ane, we must remember that in the case of the verbs for ni, take, fx di, give, fo yi, come, the first ga is elided (viii. ii. 11). Thus, faa faiq yy nine yiwān chuh, he is being taken.
fea ferala dina yiwān chuh, he is being given.
foar fyala y ying yiwān chuh, it is being come by him, i.e., he is coming. In the case of other verbs ending in ri, that vowel becomes Ty. Thus,
fa khi, eat, en fazla khyana yiwān chuh, he is being eaten, fe hi, take, ua fuqia y hyana yiwān chuh, he is being taken faci, drink, w fala cyana yiwăn chuh, it is being drunk.
TAE CAUSAL Voice.
A root is made causal by adding 1 anaw (viii. iv. 2, 3). Thus, at kar, make; 7a karanāw, cause to make. So, in the present tense, ala karān chuh, he makes; atarara karanāwān chuh, he causes to make.
The root g4 wuph, fly, is regular. Thus, 54919la ye wuphanāwān chuh, he causes to fly. But when the causal verb means 'to incite,' the n is changed to 1 (viii. iv. 4). Thus, gurar 5 wuphalāwān chuh, he incites.
Intransitive roots containing three akşaras omit the qq an of 9914 anāw in forming causals (viii. iv. 7). Thus,
at wóbar, be finished.
19 katsar, be tawny.
fatiala * wóbarāwān chuh, he
finishes. *1991 yy katsarāwān chuh, he
makes tawny. कुमल्लावान् कुड् kumalduran chuh, he
makes tender. afatiaia y cõkharāwān chuh, he
gra kumal, be tender.
alar cokhar, be contracted.
gta tshậts han, be light. itparara Ftshậtshanāwān chuh,
he makes light. ARU mandach, be ashamed.
HR114 mandachawān chuh,
he makes ashamed. To wózal, be red.
9191917 7 wózalāwān chuh, he
makes red. FHC samakh, become visible. gaarala samakhāwān chuh, he
makes visible. 9997 uopaz, be born.
69971917 F xòpazāwān chuh, he
produces. This exception does not apply to transitive verbs, which are regular. Thus,
Ha kamav, earn.
907 katar, slice.
कमवनावान् कुह kamasanārān chah,
hę causes to earn. कतरनावान छुड् kataranāvān chash,
he causes to cut in slices. 42191 kapatanāwān chuh,
he causes to cut.
792 kapaț, cut (clothes).
The root grau wuşn, be hot, also drops the va an. Thus, gautata 5 wuşņāwān chuh, he makes hot (viii. iv. 8).
The verbs 99 wuz, be awake; 68 bod, dive; I lār, touch ; fr pil, arrive; atau kõmp, tremble, and a ranz, be pleased, add optionally av, instead of wara anàv (viii. iv. 5, 14). Thus, yra ve wuzawān chu-s, or getraia ya wuzanāwān chu-s, he wakens him. So atacara kampawān chu-s, or atacara ya kõmpanāwān chu-s, he causes him to tremble. The root ge pras, be born, has three forms (viii. iv. 5, 15); viz. 49914 prasawān chuh; 499101 y prasanāwān chuh, and are pinawān chuh, he causes to bear children.
The verb fo yi, come, makes its causal yaara ananāw. [This is really the causal of qa an, bring]. Thus, yra y ananāwān chuh, he causes to bring.
The root 4 phat, be split, makes its causal vi phātawan chuh, or Ficama phāțanawān chuh (viii. iv. 17).