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Other tenses may be manufactured on the analogy of Hindi, but they are not in frequent use. Thus, Er aria vifo suh karān āsi, equivalent to the Hindi af aflat wah kar'tā höga, he will (probably) be making. It is unnecessary to make a list of these. They can be made up as required.

Some verbs are irregular in the use of their tenses. These are the following

The root Fia zān, know, when it means to know how to do a thing, uses the Future in the sense of the Present (viii. i. 58). Thus,

*Ta grifa karun zāni, he knows how to make a thing.

ora 19a parun zānan, they know how to read. So also, VIX fa syathāh zāni, he knows a great deal.

fagt gifa vidyā zāni, he is a learned man (lit. he knows

knowledge). In the same way, in writing the ceremonial part of a letter, a past tense is sometimes used instead of the imperative. Thus, afhe you Story Their tamis lyūkhu-th sūnų namaskār, to him was there writtenby-thee our compliment, i.e., write our compliments to him.

The root ora pāth, be, become, has no regular Present; and uses the Future for that tense (viii. i. 59). Thus,gry patha, I

grea păthaw, we are. yg pathakh, thou art.

afga pathiv, you are. qify păthi, he is.

aigą pāthan, they are.
For the Past tense, the following forms are used.

1 पाथहाँ pāthaha, I was. qrupla pathahặv, we were.
2 grupta pāthahờkh, thon alfonta path'hiv, you were.

wast.
3 gifef påthihē, he was.

grusta pāthahặn, they were. These forms are properly those of the Past Conditional. This verb bas no verbal nouns.

am.

Gender, Number and Person.

GENDER. The verb has two Genders, Masculine and Feminine. The Future Indicative, and the Imperative, Benedictive, and Conditional Moods, do not however, make any change for Gender. Their Masculine and Feminine forms are identical.

Some verbs are conjugated only in the Feminine. They are all impersonal. They are,

9 tsar, be inwardly wrathful (viii. i. 45).
nu phoç, be inwardly wrathful.

phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
He marte, be inwardly wrathful.
I wuts, be burnt.
for phite, forget.
nie tyamb, look eagerly, (viii. iii. 45).
99 tsuv, quarrel (viii. iii. 9). ( These two are feminine and

impersonal in the past Ata mõrav, bear pain.

tenses only. The peculiarities of these verbs will be found described in the proper places. The first six form one group, which is known as the glife tsarādi, or tsar and the others,' which will be frequently met with in the course of this article.

NUMBER. There are two numbers,- singular and plural (viii. i. 4). There is no dual. fag for utia tim chih parān, means 'they two,' or they (many) are reading.'

Person. There are three persons,— first, second, and third (viii. i. 3).

The first person is more worthy than the second, and the second than the third (viii. i. 5). Thus,

Eufry suh to teh pariv, do thou and he read (imperative).

97 tsch to běh parav, let thee and me read. or a Ruto suh to boh parav, let him and me read.

or an autą suh te tsoh ta běh parav, let him and thee and me read.

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Auxiliary Verbs, and Verbs Substantive. There are many verbs meaning to be' in Kāçmiri. The following are the two commonest forms, and they are used not only as verbs substantive, but also as auxiliary verbs.

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Negative form ya chu-s-na, &c., see p. 11.
Interrogative form ya chu-8-3, ye chu-, &c., see p. 12.
Negative-interrogative form a chu-s-nā, see p. 14.
Emphatic form gefa chu-s-ti, see p. 14.
Emphatic-interrogative form erit chu-s-ty-ā, see p. 14.

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Negative form guga osu-8-99, &c., see p. 11.
Interrogative form eet 784-8-ā, &c., see p. 12.
Negative-interrogative form gaat osu-sonā, &c., see p. 14.
Emphatic form elapfar osu-s-ti, &c., see p. 14.
Emphatic-interrogative form sagall õsu-s-ty-ā, &c., see p. 14.

These verbs take the usual pronominal suffixes. The following are examples.

E4 suh chu-m, he is to me, est mihi, I have him.
800 se chě-y, she is to thee, thou hast her.
farą færą tim chi-s, they are to him, he has them.
UF SIEĦ suh osu-m, he was to me, I had him.

gelap se ąsã-s, she was to him, he had her. Any other tenses required of the auxiliary verb are formed (like the past) regularly from the root one ās, be. Thus, Future wife asi, ho will be. It is unnecessary to give these forms.

THE

CONJUGATION

OF THE

ACTIVE VERB.

Verbal Nouns.

The Infinitive. This is formed by adding sa un, ea una, or an" to the root. It is an abstract noun. Its formation is fully described in the chapter on Primary Suffixes. See Nos. 16, 17, 18 (ante Vol. Ixvii, pp. 202 and ff.) Examples are ata karun, ta karun", and at karan", to make, making (ix. ii. 2, 3).

mtą karun, belongs to the first declension, and the other two to the second. All are masculine. They are declined as follows. Singular. Nom. Tų karun. *** karun" or ama karanu. Acc. 49 karanas.

Not used.
Ag करनन् karanan. .

af karoni.
Obl.
.
करन karans.

ofa karani.
Plural. Nom. ara karan. afa kareni.
Acc. Toa karanan.

Not used.
Ag. at karanau.

Not used.
Obl. at karanau.

Not used. The various cases are used as gerunds. Thus, Dat. #tae fann karanas kyutu, for making. The oblique form in efa ani, is specially used to indicate intention (ix. i. 18). Thus, yra gera parani gatshān chuh, he is going to read; Tafa ona ranani gauv, he went to cook; efa afy khëni gatshi, he will go to eat. Roots ending in vowels form the Infinitive only in

anu (ix. i. 21, 24). Thus, from fe khi, eat, za khyan• ; from fe ci, drink, ta cyane. This applies only to the nominative singular. Thus, Acc. Sing., khyanas. As usual, fa ni, take; fe di, give: and fy yi,

J. 1. 4

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