« السابقةمتابعة »
Other tenses may be manufactured on the analogy of Hindi, but
they are not in frequent use.
equivalent to the Hindi
Thus, सुद्ध करान् यासि suh karān āsi,
wah kar'tā hōga, he will (pro
bably) be making. It is unnecessary to make a list of these. They can be made up as required.
Some verbs are irregular in the use of their tenses. These are the following.
zān, know, when it means to know how to do a thing,
uses the Future in the sense of the Present (viii. i. 58). Thus,fa karun zāni, he knows how to make a thing.
TEA AAA parun zānan, they know how to read.
So also, fa syaṭhāh zäni, he knows a great deal.
farfa vidyā zāni, he is a learned man (lit. he knows knowledge).
In the same way, in writing the ceremonial part of a letter, a past tense is sometimes used instead of the imperative. Thus, af GY
a tamis lyūkhu-th sōn" namaskār, to him was there writtenby-thee our compliment, i.e., write our compliments to him.
The root path, be, become, has no regular Present; and uses the Future for that tense (viii. i. 59).
pathaw, we are. पथिव् pāthiv, you are.
pathan, they are.
forms are used.
la pathahav, we were. पथिहौव् pāthihiv, you were.
greta pāthahận, they were.
These forms are properly those of the Past Conditional. This verb has no verbal nouns.
Gender, Number and Person.
The verb has two Genders, Masculine and Feminine. The Future Indicative, and the Imperative, Benedictive, and Conditional Moods, do not however, make any change for Gender. Their Masculine and Feminine forms are identical.
fa phits, forget.
tyamb, look eagerly, (viii. iii. 45).
tsuv, quarrel (viii. iii. 9). (These two are feminine and
Я mōrav, bear pain.
impersonal in the past tenses only.
The peculiarities of these verbs will be found described in the proper places. The first six form one group, which is known as the fa tsarādi, ortsar and the others,' which will be frequently met with in the course of this article.
NUMBER. There are two numbers,- singular and plural (viii. i. 4). There is no dual. faų fa quia tim chih parān, means they two,' or 'they (many) are reading.'
PERSON. There are three persons,-first, second, and third (viii. i. 3).
The first person is more worthy than the second, and the second than the third (viii. i. 5).
fa suh to tsah pariv, do thou and he read
atsah to běh parav, let thee and me read.
ce a ¶¶ suh ta běh parav, let him and me read.
6 7 9 7 de a suh to tsch ta běh parav, let him and thee and me read.
Auxiliary Verbs, and Verbs Substantive.
There are many verbs meaning 'to be' in Kaçmiri. The following are the two commonest forms, and they are used not only as verbs substantive, but also as auxiliary verbs.
chu-s-no, &c., see p. 11.
chu-s-ã, chu-sa, &c., see p. 12.
Negative-interrogative form chu-s-nā, see p. 14.
Negative-interrogative form gar ōsu-s-nā, &c., see p. 14.
Emphatic form gefa ōsu-s-ti, &c., see p. 14.
| ōsu-s-ty-ã, &c., see p. 14.
These verbs take the usual pronominal suffixes. examples.
The following are
suh chu-m, he is to me, est mihi, I have him. чse chě-y, she is to thee, thou hast her.
fa fa tim chi-s, they are to him, he has them.
¤ suh ōsu-m, he was to me, I had him.
sa āsū-s, she was to him, he had her.
Any other tenses required of the auxiliary verb are formed (like as, be. Thus, Future if asi,
the past) regularly from the root
he will be. It is unnecessary to give these forms.
THE INFINITIVE. This is formed by adding un,
an" to the root. It is an abstract noun. Its formation is fully described See Nos. 16, 17, 18 (ante Vol. lxvii, karun, ◄◄ karun", and acq karan",
in the chapter on Primary Suffixes.
karun, belongs to the first declension, and the other two to All are masculine. They are declined as follows.
Ag. करनौ karanam.
Obl. करौ karanau.
The various cases are used as gerunds.
karanas kyut", for making. The oblique form
Thus, Dat. acay fag in fa ani, is specially used to indicate intention (ix. i. 18). Thus, vefa ng gatshān chuh, he is going to read; fa a ranani gauv, he went to cook; af af khěni gatshi, he will go to eat.
Roots ending in vowels form the Infinitive only in anu (ix. i. 21, 24). Thus, from fe khi, eat, khyan"; from f◄ ci, drink, cyan. This applies only to the nominative singular. Thus, Acc. Sing, khyanas. As usual, fani, take; fe di, give: and fʊ yi,
J. 1. 4