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Other tenses may be manufactured on the analogy of Hindi, but they are not in frequent use. Thus, EF pia nifh suh karān asi, equivalent to the Hindi q3 TAT FT wah kar'tā höga, he will (probably) be making. It is unnecessary to make a list of these. They can be made up as required.

Some verbs are irregular in the use of their tenses. These are the following

The root 91a zān, know, when it means to know how to do a thing, uses the Future in the sense of the Present (viii. i. 58). Thus,

ara şifa karun zāni, he knows how to make a thing.

007 oplata parun zānan, they know how to read. So also, I stifo syathāh zāni, he knows a great deal.

faqı şifa vidyā zāni, he is a learned man (lit. he knows

knowledge). In the same way, in writing the ceremonial part of a letter, a past tense is sometimes used instead of the imperative. Thus, afag groter St THE IT tamis lyükhu-th sīnu namaskār, to him was there writtenby-thee our compliment, i.e., write our compliments to him.

The root qe pāth, be, become, has no regular Present; and uses the Future for that tense (viii. i. 59). Thus, ata pāthe, I am.

area păthaw, we are. que pāthakh, thou art.

afya pathiv, you are. uify păthi, he is.

gru păthan, they are.
For the Past tense, the following forms are used.

1 giust pāthahặ, I was. qrupla pathahīv, we were.
2 qrupla pāthahậkh, thou alfapta path'hīv, you were.

wast.
3 yify pathihē, he was. grupla pāthahăn, they were.

These forms are properly those of the Past Conditional. This verb has no verbal nouns.

Gender, Number and Person.

GENDER. The verb has two Genders, Masculine and Feminine. The Future Indicative, and the Imperative, Benedictive, and Conditional Moods, do not however, make any change for Gender. Their Masculine and Feminine forms are identical.

Some verbs are conjugated only in the Feminine. They are all impersonal. They are, —

tsar, be inwardly wrathful (viii. i. 45). u phoç, be inwardly wrathful.

phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
marts, be inwardly wrathful.

I wuts, be burnt.
for phits, forget.
ria tyamb, look eagerly, (viii. iii. 45).
1 tsuv, quarrel (viii. iii. 9). ( These two are feminine and

impersonal in the past #tra mörav, bear pain.

tenses only. The peculiarities of these verbs will be found described in the proper places. The first six form one group, which is known as the ylife tsarādi, or 'tsar and the others, which will be frequently met with in the course of this article.

NUMBER. There are two numbers, singular and plural (viii. i. 4). There is no dual. fax for ytą tim chih parān, means 'they two,' or 'they (many) are reading.'

Person. There are three persons,— first, second, and third (viii. i. 3).

The first person is more worthy than the second, and the second than the third (viii. i. 5).

Thus, Era ofrę suh to tsh pariv, do thou and he read (imperative).

ar yra tsh to běh parav, let thee and me read. Ora e suh ta běh parav, let him and me read.

op ñ ar yrą suh ta tseh ta boh parav, let him and thee and me read.

Auxiliary Verbs, and Verbs Substantive.

There are many verbs meaning 'to be' in Kāçmiri. The following are the two commonest forms, and they are used not only as verbs substantive, but also as auxiliary verbs.

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Negative form ya chu-s-ne, &c., see p. 11.
Interrogative form a chu-s-ā, #chu-se, &c., see p. 12.
Negative-interrogative form a chu-s-nā, see p. 14.
Emphatic form yara chu-s-ti, see p. 14.
Emphatic-interrogative form art chu-s-ty-ā, see p. 14.

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Negative form a osu-8-ne, &c., see p. 11.
Interrogative form gaat osu-8-ā, &c., see p. 12.
Negative-interrogative form varat ēsu-s-, &c., see p. 14.
Emphatic form gaafar Osu-s-ti, &c., see p. 14.
Emphatic-interrogative form veel õsul-s-ty-ā, &c., see p. 14.

These verbs take the usual pronominal suffixes. The following are examples.

OR suh chu-m, he is to me, est mihi, I have him.
got sa chě-y, she is to thee, thou hast her.
farą form tim chi-s, they are to him, he has them.
OF TH suh osu-m, he was to me, I had him.

galeg sa ąsū-s, she was to him, he had her. Any other tenses required of the auxiliary verb are formed (like the past) regularly from the root ce as, be. Thus, Future wife asi, he will be. It is unnecessary to give these forms.

THE

CONJUGATION

OF THE

ACTIVE VERB.

Verbal Nouns.

Tue Infinitive. This is formed by adding sa un, e una, or an" to the root. It is an abstract noun. Its formation is fully described in the chapter on Primary Suffixes. See Nos. 16, 17, 18 (ante Vol. lxvii, pp. 202 and ff.) Examples are ava karun, ama karun", and ata karan", to make, making (ix. ii. 2, 3).

karun, belongs to the first declension, and the other two to
the second All are masculine. They are declined as follows.
Singular. Nom. Tą karun. *** karun" or ama karạn“.
Acc. Tę karanas.

Not used.
Ag.
करनन् karanan. .

afa karani.
Obl. करन karana.

otfa karani.
Plural. Nom. ara karan. afa karani.
Acc. Toa karanan.

Not used.
Ag. ait karanau.

Not used.
Obl. Att karanau.

Not used. The various cases are used as gerunds. Thus, Dat. #tae fan karanas kyutu, for making. The oblique form in afa ani, is specially used to indicate intention (ix. i. 18). Thus, urfa era y parani gatehān chuh, he is going to read; Tafa ina ranani gauv, he went to cook; efa afx khëni gatshi, he will go to eat.

Roots ending in vowels form the Infinitive only in ea anu (ix. i. 21, 24). Thus, from fæ khi, eat, em khyqn« ; from fe ci, drink, to cyan. This applies only to the nominative singular. Thus, Acc. Sing., @ay khyanas. As usual, fa ni, take; fe di, give: and fo yi,

J. 1. 4

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