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come, are exceptions. Their Infinitives are fare content) nyuna, Acc. Sing., fang ninas, or fafae ninis, and so on for the other two.
The following verbs have feminine infinitives. They never use the ordinary masculine forms (ix. ii. 24, 25).
9 tsar, be inwardly wrathful. Infinitive fee tsariñ, to be so. a tsuv, quarrel.
arası tsuviñ, to quarrel. a mõrav, bear pain.
Fast moravřñ, to bear
pain. Her marts, be impatient.
martsūñ, to be
impatient. The verbs ay khos, pluck the hair; fay phits, forget; phoç, be inwardly angry; * phuh, be inwardly angry; 4914 wazav, moisten; and go wuts, be burned, may either have a masculine infinitive in a un, etc., or a feminine one in "ñ (ix, ii. 25, 26). Thus, a ko sun or kogtñ, to pluck the hair (sensu obsceno). A great many other verbs also optionally form abstract nouns of the feminine gender, These are all described under the head of primary suffixes.
NOUNS OF AGENCY. There are three forms of these. The first is mado hy adding ay awuns, to the root. Thus, me karawun", a doer (ix. i. 25-27). If the root ends in ri, aw is inserted, and the Ti is changed to 4 y. Thus, fa khi, eat, ang khyawawun", a doer. Exceptions, as usual, are fa ni, take; fedi, give; and fo yi, come. These form their nouns of agency as follows, farag niwawun", a taker, and so on for the other two. The feminine of aega karawunu is already karavan, and the noun is thus declined. See article on Primary Suffixes, No. 4, (Vol. lxvii, p. 195).
Singular. Nom, at karawun".
Acc. cafe, karawanis.
Ag. Tafa karaweni.
Nom. frafa karawon•.
ada karawañ. करवा karawane. arafa karawañi. Tay karawaně. करवनन् karawaiian. करवौ karawaian.
The second form of the Noun of Agency is made by adding waarten arwāl", to the root (ix. i. 28-31). Thus, want karanwõlu, a doer. An example of a verb ending in a vowel is vaata khyanawõl“, in which
a is inserted before at wòl". As an example of for ni, fe di, and fer yi, we may give favorano, ninawòl«. Sometimes he wõlu can be added to a feminine abstract noun, thus, prata zāñwolu, a knower. Regarding these see the article on Primary Suffixes, Nos. 5 and 6, (Vol. lxvii, p. 196).
The feminine of arqetes karanwālu is ama1 karanwājěn, and the noun is thus declined.
Singular. Nom. acqat karanwölu. maar ve karanwājen.
Acc. maalfere karanwòlis. qqq1999 karanwājěñě. ,
Ag. maalf karanwali. करन्वायलि karandjeni. Plural. Nom. staalf karanwāli. 4919 karanwajčíě. Acc. karanwālyan.
1597 karanuājčñan. Ag. *qaret karanwālyau. करवाच्यो karanwajeian. . The third form of the Noun of Agency is made by adding qaqla angrakh to the root (ix. i. 28–31). Thus, quia karangrākh, a doer. The feminine is maar karangrākañ (vi. 28). It is declined regu. larly. Thus, Acc. Sing., masc. quay karangrākas, fem., 744 karangrākañě. Verbs ending in vowels have the same irregularities as in the second form. Thus, yra khyanagrâkh, an eater, faagia ninagrākh, a taker.
Verbal Adjectives, or Participles. These are Present, Future, or Past. The Past Participles are either Verbal or Adjectival. Verbal Past Participles are the original Past Participles of the verb, but are not now used as participles. Nowadays they are only used as bases for the formation of Past tenses. Adjectival Past Participles are modern formations from the Verbal Past Parti. ciples, and are nowadays the only forms used as participles proper. Verbal Past Participles have three forms, viz., the Past, the Aorist, and the pluperfect.
The PRESENT PARTICIPLE. This Participle is an active one. It has been fully described under the head of Primary Suffixes, (No. 1; Vol. lxvii, p. 193). The following resumé is given for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding
qa ān to the root (viii. i. 19; ix. i. 2). Thus, T kar, make, Pres. Part. qrą karān. It does not change for gender or number.
The roots fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fo yi, come, take aia wān, thus faula niwān, fara diwan, fara yiwan. Other roots ending in gi change the ci to o ya, and add gra wān. Thus, fekhi, eat, Pres. Part. 914 khyawan, faci, drink, quia cyawān (viii. i. 19, 20; ix. i. 3).
When a Present Participle is repeated, it means that the thing is done frequently (ix. i. 4). Thus feara feara a diwān diwān gauv, be kept giving as he went.
The Future PARTICIPLE. This is a passive Participle, equivalent to the Latin Future Participle in -endus, or the Sanskrit Participle in qata: anīyaḥ. It is the same in form as the Infinitive in gq un,
dengan. Thus, T7 478 47 yih pāțh chuh parun, this lesson is to be read, ayam pāțhaḥ pathaniyah. Te gfe apuca yih puthi chěh parañ, this book is to be read, iyam pustikā pathanīyā. In the case of Intransitive Verbs, the participle takes an impersonal passive signification. Thus, yrga tsalun, it is to be fled, calaniyam, 718 tas chuh tsalun, it is to be fled by him, he must flee. Note that the Agent is always put in the Accusative (which is an old Dative), and not in the Agent case, as we might expect. For further particulars regarding the use of this Future Participle, see the article on Primary Suffixes, Nos. 16-18, (Vol. Ixvii, pp. 204 and ff.)
The Future IMPERSONAL PARTICIPLE. Another impersonal Future Participle Passive is formed by adding a ani to the root (ix, i. 50). It is formed with both Transitive and Intransitive verbs. Thus ne atat tas karant, it is to be done by him, he must do; ag gaat tas pakanī, he must go. See Primary Suffix No. 14 (Vol. lxvii, p. 201).
The VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. These will be fully dealt with when describing the past tenses. Suffice it at present to say that the Past Verbal Past Participle only occurs in the first and second conjugations, and is formed by adding y u-mātrā to the root. Thus, first conjugation, aq kar», done ; second conjugation, petsąl", gone. In the case of verbs of the first conjugation, it is a Passive Participle, and in the case of verbs of the second conjugation, which are all intransitive, it is a Neuter Participle. See also article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 10; Vol. lxvii, p. 197). This Past Participle refers to something which has lately happened.
Aorist VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This will also be fully dealt with when describing the Aorist Tense. It is formed by adding ata you or sa yauv, to the root. Thus, ara karyov or aêta karyauv, done. The Participle occurs for all conjugations, with this difference, that in the first and second conjugations it is an Aorist or Indefinite Past, and contains no idea of proximity or remoteness of time. In the case of verbs of the third conjugation, which bave no Verbal Past Participle, it is used instead of that Participle, and refers to something which has lately happened. See, also, Primary Suffix, No. 11, (Vol. lxvii, p. 198).
PuupeRFECT VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This will also be fully dealt with when describing the pluperfect tense. It is formed by adding 219 yāv to the root. Thus, afa karyāv, done. In the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations it implies that the action has taken place a long time ago. In the case of verbs of the third conjugation it takes the place of the Aorist Participle, the proper form of which has been used up for the Past. These verbs have a special form for the true pluperfect Participle, which need not be described here.
The ADJECTIVAL PAST PARTICIPLE. These are formed by adding the termination #a matu or ya mut", to a verbal Past Participle. In the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations, this is added to the Past Participle in ę u-mātrā, and in the case of verbs of the third conjugation to the Aorist Participle in a you or ata yauv, the final av of which is elided. Both members of the compound thus formed are liable to changes of inflexion and gender (ix. i. 40). See also article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 12; Vol. lxvii, p. 198). Examples are,
mihiq karumạt", or maya karmut", mado ; which is thus declined. .
aatha vyațhyāmatu, athy vyațhyanmạt", anya vya!hyūmut", or alya vyathyaumut", become fat, from zo vya!h, be fat. It is thus declined,
Verbal Adverbs, or Conjunctive Participles.
The PRESENT CONJUNCTIVE ParticiPLE. This is formed from the Present Participle by adding Ti-mäträ, and modifying the preceding long at à. Thus, from *T kar, make, Present Participle, 4714 karān,