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come, are exceptions. Their Infinitives are fa() nyun", Acc. Sing., faa ninas, or fafa ninis, and so on for the other two.
The following verbs have feminine infinitives.
the ordinary masculine forms (ix. ii. 24, 25).
They never use
tear, be inwardly wrathful. Infinitive af tsariñ, to be so.
wuts, be burned, may either have a masculine infinitive in un, etc., or a feminine one in ñ (ix. ii. 25, 26). Thus, T kasun or a kesañ, to pluck the hair (sensu obscoeno). A great many other verbs also optionally form abstract nouns of the feminine gender. These are all described under the head of primary suffixes.
NOUNS OF AGENCY. There are three forms of these.
The first is Thus, karawun", a करवुनु
aw is inserted, and the
khyawawun", a doer.
give; and f yi, come.
iis changed toy. Thus, f khi, eat, Exceptions, as usual, are fa ni, take; fe di, These form their nouns of agency as follows, faa niwawun”, a taker, and so on for the other two. The feminine ofgą karawun" is ada karavan, and the noun is thus declined. See article on Primary Suffixes, No. 4, (Vol. Ixvii, p. 195).
Singular. Nom, ga karawun".
Acc. करवनिस karawanis.
Ag. करन karawtni.
Plural. Nom. f karaw¶n'.
karawaně. करवज़न् karawañan. करबज़ौ karawañaw.
The second form of the Noun of Agency is made by adding ada
anwōl", to the root (ix. i. 28-31). Thus,
An example of a verb ending in a vowel is
karanwōl", a doer.
khyanawōl", in which
wol". As an example of far ni, fe di, and
a is inserted before a बोलु यि निनवोल fa yi, we may give fa ninawōl". Sometimes a wōl" can be ala
added to a feminine abstract noun, thus, zāñwōl", a knower. Regarding these see the article on Primary Suffixes, Nos. 5 and 6, (Vol. lxvii, p. 196).
The feminine of karanwōl" is a karanwājšñ, and the noun is thus declined.
The third form of the Noun of Agency is made by adding aanra angrakh to the root (ix. i. 28-31). Thus, qua karangrākh, a doer. The feminine is karangrākañ (vi. 28). It is declined regularly. Thus, Acc. Sing., masc. karangrākas, fem., aquas karangrākañě. Verbs ending in vowels have the same irregularities as in the second form. Thus, ¶ khyanagrākh, an eater, fauna ninagrākh, a taker.
Verbal Adjectives, or Participles.
These are Present, Future, or Past. The Past Participles are either Verbal or Adjectival. Verbal Past Participles are the original Past Participles of the verb, but are not now used as participles. Nowadays they are only used as bases for the formation of Past tenses. Adjectival Past Participles are modern formations from the Verbal Past Participles, and are nowadays the only forms used as participles proper. Verbal Past Participles have three forms, viz., the Past, the Aorist, and the Pluperfect.
The PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
This Participle is an active one. It
has been fully described under the head of Primary Suffixes, (No. 1; Vol. lxvii, p. 193). The following resumé is given for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding
an to the root (viii. i. 19; ix. i. 2). Thus, kar, make, karān. It does not change for gender or number. The roots fani, take, fa di, give, and fa yi, come, take a wān, thus निषान् niwān, दिवान् diwān, यिवान् yiwān. Other roots ending in
i change thei toya, and add 77 wăn. Part. khyawan, fa ci, drink,
Thus, fakhi, eat, Pres. cyawān (viii. i. 19, 20; ix. i. 3).
When a Present Participle is repeated, it means that the thing is Thus fear fear na diwan diwān gauv, दिवान् दिवान् गौव
done frequently (ix. i. 4).
he kept giving as he went.
The FUTURE PARTICIPLE. This is a passive Participle, equivalent to the Latin Future Participle in -endus, or the Sanskrit Participle in अनौयः aniyah. It is the same in form as the Infinitive in उन् 2012,
उन् unu or अ॑नु anu. Thus, इच् पाठ् छुद्द् परुन् yih pāth chuk parun, this lesson is to be read, ayaṁ pāṭhaḥ pathaniyaḥ, fue aca yih puthi chěh parañ, this book is to be read, iyaṁ pustikā paṭhaniyā. In the case of Intransitive Verbs, the participle takes an impersonal passive signification. Thus, tsalun, it is to be fled, calaniyam, aega tas chuh tsalun, it is to be fled by him, he must flee. Note that the Agent is always put in the Accusative (which is an old Dative), and not in the Agent case, as we might expect. For further particulars regarding the use of this Future Participle, see the article on Primary Suffixes, Nos. 16-18, (Vol. lxvii, pp. 204 and ff.)
The FUTURE IMPERSONAL PARTICIPLE. Another impersonal Future Participle Passive is formed by adding ani to the root (ix, i. 50). It is formed with both Transitive and Intransitive verbs. Thus a tas karant, it is to be done by him, he must do; aq tas pakani, he must go. See Primary Suffix No. 14 (Vol. lxvii, p. 201). The VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. These will be fully dealt with when describing the past tenses. Suffice it at present to say that the Past Verbal Past Participle only occurs in the first and second conjugations, and is formed by adding ▼u-mātrā to the root. Thus, first conjugation, a kar", done; second conjugation, tsal, gone. In the case of verbs of the first conjugation, it is a Passive Participle, and
in the case of verbs of the second conjugation, which are all intransitive, it is a Neuter Participle. See also article on Primary Suffixes,. (No. 10; Vol. lxvii, p. 197). This Past Participle refers to something which has lately happened.
AORIST VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This will also be fully dealt with when describing the Aorist Tense. It is formed by adding a yōv or yauv, to the root. Thus, afa karyōv or aafa karyauv, done. The Participle occurs for all conjugations, with this difference, that in the first and second conjugations it is an Aorist or Indefinite Past, and contains no idea of proximity or remoteness of time. In the case of verbs of the third conjugation, which have no Verbal Past Participle, it is used instead of that Participle, and refers to something which has lately happened. See, also, Primary Suffix, No. 11, (Vol. lxvii, p. 198). PLUPERFECT VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This will also be fully dealt with when describing the Pluperfect tense. It is formed by adding aa yāv to the root. Thus, af karyāv, done. In the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations it implies that the action has taken place a long time ago. In the case of verbs of the third conjugation it takes the place of the Aorist Participle, the proper form of which has been used up for the Past. These verbs have a special form for the true Pluperfect Participle, which need not be described here.
The ADJECTIVAL PAST PARTICIPLE. These are formed by adding the termination mat or mut", to a verbal Past Participle. In the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations, this is added to the Past Participle in u-mātrā, and in the case of verbs of the third conjugation to the Aorist Participle in a yōv or yauv, the final
v of which is elided. Both members of the compound thus formed are liable to changes of inflexion and gender (ix. i. 40). See also article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 12; Vol. lxvii, p. 198). Examples are,—
dadą kar"mat", or aga kar"mut", made; which is thus declined.
व्यश्योम॑तु॒ vyathyōmat", व्ययौम॑नु॒ vyathyanmat", व्यश्योमुनु vyathyōmuts, or aa vyaṭhyaumut”, become fat, from a vyath, be fat. It is thus declined,
Verbal Adverbs, or Conjunctive Participles.
There are two of these, a Present and a Past.
The PRESENT CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. This is formed from the
Present Participle by adding longa. Thus, from
i-mātrā, and modifying the preceding kar, make, Present Participle, karān,