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come, are exceptions. Their Infinitives are farverige () nyun", Acc. Sing., faag ninas, or fafare ninis, and so on for the other two.
The following verbs have feminine infinitives. They never use the ordinary masculine forms (ix. ii. 24, 25).
y tear, be inwardly wrathful. Infinitive sfreg tsariñ, to be so. a tsuv, quarrel.
far tsuviñ, to quarrel. ta mõrav, bear pain.
Hitat moravkñ, to bear
pain. & marts, be impatient.
9 marts*ñ, to be
impatient. The verbs ay khos, pluck the hair; fue phits, forget; ma phóg, be inwardly angry; phuh, be inwardly angry; 1974 wazav, moisten ; and go wuts, be burned, may either have a masculine infinitive in cą un, etc., or a feminine one in oro añ (ix, ii. 25, 26). Thus, og kosun or pronome kestñ, to pluck the hair (sensu obsceno). A great many other verbs also optionally form abstract nouns of the feminine gender, These are all described under the head of primary suffixes.
Nouns OF AGENCY. There are three forms of these. The first is made by adding go awuna, to the root. Thus, hogy karawun", a doer (ix. i. 25-27). If the root ends insi, v aw is inserted, and the Ti is changed to 4 y. Thus, fæ khi, eat, aga khyawawun", a doer. Exceptions, as usual, are få ni, take; fe di, give; and for yi, come. These form their nouns of agency as follows, faraga niwawun", a taker, and so on for the other two. The feminine of aega karawuns is atidan karavañ, and the noun is thus declined. See article on Primary Suffixes, No. 4, (Vol. lxvii, p. 195).
Singular. Nom, aty karawun.
Acc. afore karawanis.
Ag. rafa karaw4ni.
Acc. *Ta karawanyan.
aida karawañ. करवा karawane. Fafor karawañi. करवन karawane. करवान् karawaian. me karawañau.
The second form of the Noun of Agency is made by adding retning anwõl", to the root (ix, i. 28-31). Thus, aqat karanwõl“, a doer. An example of a verb ending in a vowel is water khyanawõl, in which
a is inserted before at wòla. As an example of for ni, fe di, and far yi, we may give facramen, ninawāls. Sometimes she wūlu can be added to a feminine abstract noun, thus, great căñwölu, a knower. Regarding these see the article on Primary Suffixes, Nos. 5 and 6, (Vol. Ixvii, p. 196).
The feminine of argatog karanwāla is atau karanwājóñ, and the noun is thus declined.
Singular. Nom. acqatu karanwālu.
a karanwājèn. Acc. *aalferę karanwālis. 791929 karanwājěně.
Ag. maalf karanwali. #qarafoy karanājēñi. Plural. Nom. #alfe karanwāli, 491049 karanwājěñě.
Acc. EN karanwālyan. 9747915757a karanuājěñan.
Ag. Tqaret karanwālyau. **974154511 karanwājěñau. The third form of the Noun of Agency is made by adding «qqių angrakh to the root (ix. i. 28-31). Thus, qui karangrākh, a doer. The feminine is *tq4199 karangrākañ (vi. 28). It is declined regularly. Thus, Acc. Sing., masc. quae karangrākas, fem., atque karangrākañě. Verbs ending in vowels have the same irregularities as in the second form. Thus, erat khyanagrākh, an eater, foragie ninagrākch, a taker.
Verbal Adjectives, or Participles. These are Present, Future, or Past. The Past Participles are either Verbal or Adjectival. Verbal Past Participles are the original Past Participles of the verb, but are not now used as participles. Nowadays they are only used as bases for the formation of Past tenses. Adjectival Past Participles are modern formations from the Verbal Past Parti. ciples, and are nowadays the only forms used as participles proper. Verbal Past Participles have three forms, viz., the Past, the Aorist, and the Pluperfect.
The PRESENT PARTICIPLE. This Participle is an active one. It has been fully described under the head of Primary Suffixes, (No. 1; Vol. lxvii, p. 193). The following resumé is given for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding
gra än to the root (viii. i. 19; ix. i. 2). Thus, T kar, make, Pres. Part. Ara karān. It does not change for gender or number.
The roots fa ni, take, fę di, give, and fo yi, come, take aia wān, thus fama niwān, fara diwān, fara yiwān. Other roots ending in ri change the ri to ya, and add ala wān. Thus, fekhi, eat, Pres. Part. Qara khyawān, fe ci, drink, yarą cyawān (viii. i. 19, 20; ix. i. 3).
When a Present Participle is repeated, it means that the thing is done frequently (ix. i. 4). Thus fara foaia sita divān diwān gauv, be kept giving as he went.
The Future PARTICIPLE. This is a passive Participle, equivalent to the Latin Future Participle in -endus, or the Sanskrit Participle in qale: anīyaḥ. It is the same in form as the Infinitive in gq un,
चनु ant. Thus, इह पाठ कुह परन् jih path chuh parun, this lesson is to be read, ayam pāțhaḥ pathanīyaḥ. Ti afu uruca yih puthi chěh parạñ, this book is to be read, iyam pustikā pathanīyā. In the case of Intransitive Verbs, the participle takes an impersonal passive signification. Thus, yra tsalun, it is to be fled, calaniyam, ap To tas chuh tsalun, it is to be fled by him, he must flee. Note that the Agent is always put in the Accusative (which is an old Dative), and not in the Agent case, as we might expect. For further particulars regarding the use of this Future Participle, see the article on Primary Suffixes, Nos. 16-18, (Vol. lxvii, pp. 204 and ff.)
The FUTURE IMPERSONAL PARTICIPLE. Another impersonal Future Participle Passive is formed by adding wat anī to the root (ix, i. 50). It is formed with both Transitive and Intransitive verbs. Thus ay ata tas karant, it is to be done by him, he must do; a waalt tas pakanī, he must go. See Primary Suffix No. 14 (Vol. lxvii, p. 201).
The VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. These will be fully dealt with when describing the past tenses. Suffice it at present to say that the Past Verbal Past Participle only occurs in the first and second conjugations, and is formed by adding & u-mātrā to the root. Thus, first conjugation, aq kar“, done ; second conjugation, itsąl", gone. In the case of verbs of the first conjugation, it is a Passive Participle, and
in the case of verbs of the second conjugation, which are all intransitive, it is a Neuter Participle. See also article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 10; Vol. lxvii, p. 197). This Past Participle refers to something which has lately happened.
AORIST VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This will also be fully dealt with when describing the Aorist Tense. It is formed by adding to you or gta yauv, to the root. Thus, agtą karyūv or geta karyauv, done. The Participle occurs for all conjugations, with this difference, that in the first and second conjugations it is an Aorist or Indefinite Past, and contains no idea of proximity or remoteness of time. In the case of verbs of the third conjugation, which bave no Verbal Past Participle, it is used instead of that Participle, and refers to something which has lately happened. See, also, Primary Suffix, No. 11, (Vol. lxvii, p. 198).
PLUPERFECT VERBAL Past PARTICIPLE. This will also be fully dealt with when describing the Pluperfect tense. It is formed by adding ara yāv to the root. Thus, aztą karyāv, done. In the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations it implies that the action has taken place a long time ago. In the case of verbs of the third conjugation it takes the place of the Aorist Participle, the proper form of which has been used up for the Past. These verbs have a special form for the true Pluperfect Participle, which need not be described here.
The ADJECTIVAL PAST PARTICIPLE. These are formed by adding the termination #a matk or ya mutu, to a verbal Past Participle. In the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations, this is added to the Past Participle in ę u-mātrā, and in the case of verbs of the third conjugation to the Aorist Participle in a yõv orta yauv, the final av of which is elided. Both members of the compound thus formed are liable to changes of inflexion and gender (ix. i. 40). See also article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 12; Vol. lxvii, p. 198). Examples are,
**#ą kar“mat”, or anya karımut", made ; which is thus declined.
artią vyațhyāmat", azathio vyațhyaumat", atya vyathyõmut®, or maiya vyathyaumut", become fat, from az vyath, be fat. It is thus
Verbal Adverbs, or Conjunctive Participles.
The PRESENT CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. This is formed from the Present Participle by adding g i-mātrā, and modifying the preceding long ar ā. Thus, from *T kar, make, Present Participle, 414 karān,