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Present Conjunctive Participle, wofa karın•, on making, at the time of making. It is used in sentences like the following Ty * fa sta suh karāni gauo, he went away as he was doing it. This form is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula, and, according to my paņạit, is only used by rustics. It is more elegant to use the simple Present Participle. Thus, सह करान् गौव् suh karān gauv.

The Past CONJUNCTIVE Participle. This form corresponds to the Sanskrit Conjunctive Participle in a tvā, or o ya (my tya), and means having done so and so.' It is fully described in the Article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 2 ; Vol. lxvii, p. 193), and the more important information there given is here repeated for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding to ith or tą paith kyăth, to the root. Thus, afrą karith, having made, afrą parith, having read. So also afro my karith kyåth, having made, and ofrą parith kyåth, having read (ix. i. 5, 6).

Before this suffix a radical at a is modified, a radical te becomes $i, and a radical o Ō becomes 5ů (ix. i. 13-15). Thus, From It kār, boil.

atfrą kūrith, having boiled. AIT mār, beat.

Alfrą mărith, having beaten. ar tār, pass over.

alfrų tūrith having passed over. go tsēt, pound to powder. fey tsīțith, having pounded to

powder. we lēkh, write.

faz līkhith, having written. [So also — av byah, sit.

fafry bihith, having sat). u khôts, fear.

afya khutsith, having feared. om bõz, hear.

afstą būzith, having heard. ate tõl, weigh.

afsą tülith, having weighed. Roots ending in vowels, form their Conjunctive Participle as follows (ix. i. 7, 8). fy khi, eat.

4 khyåth, having eaten, fy ci, drink.

4 cyåth, having drunk.

fx hi, take.

vy hyåth, having taken. for zi, be born.

% zyåth, having been born.
fu pi, fall.

oq pyăth, having fallen.
But-
fę di, give.

feu dith, having given.
fa ni, take.

faq nith, having taken.
for yi, come.

faq yith, having come.
So also, ay may khyath kyåth, &c.
The following are irregular,-

ge wud, fly, when it means to obtain salvation (mākşa) makes gfha wujith. Thus, gfra sita wujith gauv, having obtained salvation, he went, i.e., he went to heaven, but greu sita wuļith gauv, having flown, he went, i.e., he flew away (ix. i. 9).

The causal verb hitra mạşerāw, cause to forget, makes itafaa māşawith, when the object forgotten is death. Thus, ATĄ Anafaa marun māşawith, having caused to forget death. If anything else is forgotten, it is hafaq maşarıwith, regularly (ix. i. 10).

When the Conjunctive Participle is repeated, to imply continuous action, the ų th is dropped, and the final i becomes i-mātrā (ix. i. 11, 12). Thus,

aft afc kari karó, having made, having made, i.e., having

kept making
afe as būzé, būzé, having kept hearing.
affi affi kõri kõri, having kept boiling.

alft nift tāri tāri, having continued passing people over. Verbs ending in vowels optionally retain the ų th. Thus, @@ khẽ khě, or a pų khyăth khyắth, having kept eating. fe fę di di, or fez fez dith dith, having kept giving.

NEGATIVE CONJUNCTIVE Participle. I This is formed by adding qa?! anay to the root (ix. i. 51). Thus, ataq karanay, not having done. See Primary Suffix, No. 14, (Vol. lxvii, p. 201).

A. Indicative Mood.

1. Present Tense. The same form is used both for the Definite, the Habitual, and the Indefinite Present (viii. i. 7-10). Thus, yra parān chuh, he is reading, or he is in the habit of reading, or he reads. So we have,

AUT FIĘ Tara F İçwar zagatas rachān chuh, God protects

the world. ora Tratę tela v pāne pānas rachān chuh, by himself (i.e.,

by his own power) he protects himself. Ātmanā atmānan

pālayati. व्याकरण परान् कुह ल्वकुट vyākaran parān chuh lokuty, the boy is

reading (i.e., has arrived at that stage of his studies )

grammar. गङ्गाय गान् कुह प्रथ् कुंबस् gaygāy° gatshan chuh prath kumbas.

He visits (is in the habit of visiting) the Ganges at every

kumbha festival. #17 T a rra kyāh chuh murts karān, does he make

images ? (is that his profession ?) IF ET Fią aer kyāh chuh jān lēkhān, is the holy man

writing (and going on writing) ? FIT T 1991. kyāh chuh reļu gyawān, is the good man

singing ? This tense is found by adding the Present Tense of the auxiliary verb to the Present Participle of the principal verb, which does not change for gender or number. It is therefore thus conjugated.

I make, or am making.

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Negative form, alia pa karān chusne, I do not make, &c., see

p. 11.

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2. IMPERFECT TENSE. This tense is not described by Icvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the Present, except that the Past tense of the Auxiliary Verb is used instead of the Present. Thus,

I was making

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The various adverbial suffixes are added as in the case of the Present Tensa. They will be found in detail under the paradigm of the auxiliary verb, and need not be repeated here. One example will suffice. Frią nuga karān ūsusne, I was not making. As in the case of the Present, in a formal sentence, it is more elegant to place the auxiliary before the present participle. Thus, a up up alą bate osa suh khyuwān, he was eating rice. Pronominal suffixes are added as in the Present. Thus,

999 alią běh 7sus-ath karān, I was making thee. ofy elfou alą ąsi asi-th karān, we were making thee. IT PET atrą bõh 7sus-ay kardn, I was making for thee. p ara atią böh 7sus-an karan, I was making bim. P ag aniq bõh ūsus-as karān, I was making for him.

0947 wira běh ūsus-awa karān, I was making you. your ata bỏh ūsusakh karān, I was making them. ET TÆ trą suh osu-s karān, he was making him or for him.

(not ga osu-n). And so others.

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