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النشر الإلكتروني

Present Conjunctive Participle, afa karını, on making, at the time of making. It is used in sentences like the following Ty alfa ofta suh karāni gauv, he went away as he was doing it. This form is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula, and, according to my paņdit, is only used by rustics. It is more elegant to use the simple Present Participle. Thus, Epią sitą suh karān gauv.

The Past CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. This form corresponds to the Sanskrit Conjunctive Participle in a tvā, or 7 ya (

@tya), and means 'having done so and so.' It is fully described in the Article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 2; Vol. lxvii, p. 193), and the more important information there given is here repeated for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding Ty ith or rith kyåth, to the root. Thus, afrą karith, having made, afre parith, having read. So also after karith kyath, having made, and afrą my parith kyåth, having read (ix. i. 5, 6).

Before this suffix a radical at a is modified, a radical t ē becomes đi, and a radical o Ō becomes & ū (ix. i. 13-15). Thus,

From-
कार kar, boil.

affra kậrith, having boiled.
ATT mār, beat.

Alfrą mărith, having beaten.
Ar tār, pass over.

alfią tūrith having passed over. o tsēt, pound to powder. afey tsīțith, having pounded to

powder. ho lēkh, write.

fay likhith, having written. [So also er byah, sit.

fafry bihith, having sat]. oy khôts, fear.

aray khutsith, having feared. 19 bõz, bear.

aforų būzith, having heard. ale tõl, weigh.

afgy tülith, having weighed. Roots ending in vowels, form their Conjunctive Participle as follows (ix. i. 7, 8). fc khi, eat.

09 khyath, having eaten. foci, drink.

cyåth, having drunk.

fshi, take.
for zi, be born.
fu pi, fall.

we hyăth, having taken.
sve zyăth, having been born.
09 pyăth, having fallen.

But

fcdi, give.

fry dith, having given. fa ni, take.

fay nith, having taken.
fu yi, come.

fay yith, having come.
So also, 44 khyath kyåth, &c.
The following are irregular, -

ge wud, fly, when it means to obtain salvation (mākşa) makes gfly wujith. Thus, gfeta sita wujith gauv, having obtained salvation, he went, i.e., he went to heaven, but groota wudith gauv, having flown, he went, i.e., he flew away (ix. i. 9).

The causal verb #qrra mạşerūv, cause to forget, makes hrafan māşawith, when the object forgotten is death. Thus, ATŲ hrefay marun māşawith, having caused to forget death. If anything else is forgotten, it is #qulfaq maşorąwith, regularly (ix. i. 10).

When the Conjunctive Participle is repeated, to imply continuous action, the ų th is dropped, and the final i becomes i-mātrā (ix. i. 11, 12). Thus,

afe afc kari kørs, having made, having made, i.e., having

kept making
af af būzó, būzó, having kept hearing.
aft alfi karó kūri, having kept boiling.

alft mift tāri tāri, having continued passing people over. Verbs ending in vowels optionally retain the q th. Thus, e khẽ khě, or er ey khyath khyåth, having kept eating. fe fe di di, or feu feu dith dith, having kept giving.

NEGATIVE CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. This is formed by adding 977 anay to the root (ix. i. 51). Thus, atay karanay, not having done. See Primary Suflix, No. 14, (Vol. lxvii, p. 201).

A. Indicative Mood.

1. PRESENT TENSE.

The same form is used both for the Definite, the Habitual, and the Indefinite Present (viii. i. 7-10). Thus, a parān chuh, he is reading, or he is in the habit of reading, or he reads. So we have,

ATT ANĘ Tama y İçwar zagatas rachân chuh, God protects

the world. 919 ore Ten pāne pānas rachān chuh, by himself (i.e.,

by his own power) he protects himself. Ātmanā atmānam

pālayati. QUATT "TIT magas vyākaran parān chuh lökut", the boy is

reading (i.e., has arrived at that stage of his studies)

grammar. JTIT T 178 gangāye gatshän chuh prăth kumbas.

He visits (is in the habit of visiting) the Ganges at every

kumbha festival. RIT TT gia kyāh chuh murts karān, does he make

images ? (is that his profession ?) 18 atera kyāh chuh jān lēkhān, is the holy man

writing (and going on writing) ? 13 121917. kyāh chuh r4fu gyawān, is the good man

singing ? This tense is found by adding the Present Tense of the auxiliary verb to the Present Participle of the principal verb, which does not change for gender or number. It is therefore thus conjugated.

I make, or am making.

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Negative form, aniq va karān chusne, I do not make, &c., see

p. 11.

Interrogative form, atia ya karān chusā, ata e karān chuse, &c., do I make ? see p. 12.

Negative Interrogative form, aniq 991 karān chusnā, &c., do I not make ? see p. 14.

Emphatic form, alia rafa karān chusti, &c., I do indeed make, see p. 14.

Emphatic Interrogative form, a pret karān chustyā, &c., do I indeed make ? see p. 14.

In this, and in other periphrastic tenses, it is elegant to put the auxiliary before the verb (viii. i. 22, 23, 24) when standing in a sentence. Thus,

qarouq bate chuh suh khyawān, he is eating rice, is

more elegant than बत मुह ख्यवान् कुह bate suh khyavān

chuh, though both are correct. नव पत कुङ् चासनस् प्य बिहिथ् पूजा करान् tasvi pati chuh āsanas

pyăth bihith pūzā karān, after that; he is doing worship having sat down on a seat, is more elegant than a ya चासनस् प्य विहिथ् पूजा करान् बुह tarur pato āsanas pyāth

bihith pūzā karān chuh, though both are correct. So the following is the most elegant order, ईश्वर कुह चासान् काशिय ET içwar chuh āsän kāçiye andar, God exists in Benares. When, however, the verb stands by itself as in the paradigm, the auxiliary always follows.

The following are examples of the use of pronominal suffixes, (pp. 15 and ff )

hyacia bõh chus-ath karān, I make thee (viii. i. 37). fe fæą mia asi chi-th karān, we make thee. Ratų bỏh chus-an karān, I make him.

499 atrą boh chus-as karān, I make for him.
994 artiq bõh chus-awa karān, I make you.

€ *tiq bõh chus-akh karān, I make them. Similarly for the other persons, which are all regular, except of Vatiq suh chu-s karän, he makes him, or for him (not ye chu-n) (see

p. 19).

2. IMPERFECT TENSE.

This tense is not described by Icvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the Present, except that the Past tense of the Auxiliary Verb is used instead of the Present. Thus,

I was making.

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The various adverbial suffixes are added as in the case of the Present Tense. They will be found in detail under the paradigm of the auxiliary verb, and need not be repeated here. One example will suffice. #ią gaya karān ūsusne, I was not making. As in the case of the Present, in a formal sentence, it is more elegant to place the auxiliary before the present participle. Thus, Ta site para bate Ös" suh khyuwan, he was eating rice. Pronominal suffixes are added as in the Present. Thus,

Y uy #tiq bõh osus-ath karān, I was making thee.
effe effey 17 asi õsi-th karān, we were making thee.

8 Atiq běh 7sus-ay karðn, I was making for thee.
Tea *Tią bờh ūsus-an karān, I was making bim.
TEHĘ Frią bõh ūsus-as karān, I was making for him.
R18 #Tią boh ūsus-awe karān, I was making you.
Y Tią boh ūsusakh karān, I was making them.
ET E *q suh osu-s karān, he was making him or for him.

(not ca osu-n).
And so others.

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