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Present Conjunctive Participle, *difa karın», on making, at the time of making. It is used in sentences like the following av alfa ona suh karòngauv, he went away as he was doing it. This form is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula, and, according to my paņdit, is only used by rustics. It is more elegant to use the simple Present Participle. Thus, EY TIų sta suh karān gauv.

The Past CONJUNCTIVE Participle. This form corresponds to the Sanskrit Conjunctive Participle in a tvā, or 7 ya (a tya), and means 'having done so and so.' It is fully described in the Article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 2; Vol. lxvii, p. 193), and the more important information there given is here repeated for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding Ty ith or ry my ith kyåth, to the root. Thus, afrą karith, having made, afre parith, having read. So also afrey karith kyăth, having made, and afry my parith kyăth, having read (ix. i. 5, 6).

Before this suffix a radical pa is modified, a radical t a becomes & i, and a radical o Ō becomes e ū (ix. i. 13-15). Thus,

From

17 kār, boil.

affra kõrith, having boiled. ATT măr, beat.

alfrą mărith, having beaten. ATT tār, pass over.

alfrą tặrith having passed over. go tsēt, pound to powder. foy tsițith, having pounded to

powder. he lēkh, write.

fav likhith, having written. [So also er byah, sit.

fafru bihith, having sat]. ay khôts, fear.

afų khuteith, having feared. hogy bõz, bear.

aforų būzith, having heard. ato tõl, weigh.

gree tülith, having weighed. Roots ending in vowels, form their Conjunctive Participle as follows (ix. i. 7, 8). fu khi, eat.

09 khyăth, having eaten. fy ci, drink.

y cyath, having drunk.

fx hi, take.
for zi, be born.
fa pi, fall.

v hyath, having taken.

zyăth, having been born. pyáth, having fallen.

But-
fe di, give.

fęy dith, having given.
fa ni, take.

fay nith, having taken.
fu yi, come.

foy yith, having come.
So also, el may khyath kyåth, &c.
The following are irregular,-

g wud, fly, when it means to obtain salvation (mākşa) makes gfsty wujith. Thus, gratuita wujith gauv, having obtained salvation, he went, i.e., he went to heaven, but giay sa wudith gauv, having flown, he went, i.e., he flew away (ix. i. 9).

The causal verb #tra mạşerūw, cause to forget, makes atafaa māşawith, when the object forgotten is death. Thus, ATą Arafaa marun māşawith, having caused to forget death. If anything else is forgotten, it is aqulfaq maşerąwith, regularly (ix. i. 10).

When the Conjunctive Participle is repeated, to imply continuous action, the ų th is dropped, and the final i becomes i-mātrā (ix. i. 11, 12). Thus,

afr #fc kari kari, having made, having made, i.e., having

kept making
ft af būzó, būzó, having kept hearing.
afft aft kāri kāri, having kept boiling.

alft nift tāri tāri, having continued passing people over. Verbs ending in vowels optionally retain the q th. Thus, a khẽ khë, or by ey khyăth khyăth, having kept eating. fe fe di di, or fry fear dith dith, having kept giving.

NEGATIVE CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. This is formed by adding 97?? anay to the root (ix. i. 51). Thus, ataq karanay, not having done. See Primary Suffix, No. 14, (Vol. lxvii, p. 201).

A. Indicative Mood.

1. Present Tense. The same form is used both for the Definite, the Habitual, and the Indefinite Present (viii. i. 7-10). Thus, yra yparān chuh, he is reading, or he is in the habit of reading, or he reads. So we have,

*HT gray tara 7 İçwar zagatas rachân chuh, God protects

the world. ara te pāna pānas rachăn chuh, by himself (i.e.,

by his own power) he protects himself. Ātmana atmānam

pālayati. व्याकरण परान् छह ल्वकुटु vyakaran parān chuh lokut", the boy is

reading (i.e., has arrived at that stage of his studies)

grammar. गङ्गाय गछान् कुह प्रथ् कुंबस् gaygayo gatshan chuh prath kumbas.

He visits (is in the habit of visiting) the Ganges at every

kumbha festival. PIE TT cią kyāh chuh murts karān, does he make

images ? (is that his profession ?) WIE T giâara kyāh chuh jān lēkhān, is the holy man

writing (and going on writing)? 1 yr arra kyāh chuh r4fu gyawan, is the good man

singing ? This tense is found by adding the Present Tense of the auxiliary verb to the Present Participle of the principal verb, which does not change for gender or number. It is therefore thus conjugated.

I make, or am making.

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Negative form, cia yra karān chusne, I do not make, &c., see

P. ll.

Interrogative form, miq yar karān chusā, ata te karān chuse, &c., do I make ? see p. 12.

Negative Interrogative form, atia na karân chusnā, &c., do I not make ? see p.

14. Emphatic form, alią gafa karān chusti, &c., I do indeed make, see p. 14.

Emphatic Interrogative form, Tiai karān chustyā, &c., do I indeed make ? see p. 14.

In this, and in other periphrastic tenses, it is elegant to put the auxiliary before the verb (viii.i. 22, 23, 24) when standing in a sentence. Thus,

4 E para bate chuh suh khyawān, he is eating rice, is

more elegant than बत मुह स्ववान् कुइ bate suh khyavān

chuh, though both are correct. नव पत छह शासनस् प्य बिहिथ् पूजा करान tatui pati chuh āsanas

pyåsh bihith pūza karán, after that; he is doing worship having sat down on a seat, is more elegant than ang na चासनस् प्य विहिथ् पूजा करान् छुह taur pato āsanas pyāth

bihith pūzā karān chuh, though both are correct. So the following is the most elegant order,-**T TE a la ating <? içwar chuh āsān kāçiya andar, God exists in Benares. When, however, the verb stands by itself as in the paradigm, the auxiliary always follows.

The following are examples of the use of pronominal suffixes, (pp. 15 and ff

Roq ala běh chus-ath karān, I make thee (viii. i. 37).
fp fry acra asi chi-th karān, we make thee.
RT #ą bỏh chus-an karān, I make him.

999 Tia bõh chus-as karān, I make for him.

994 Tią bỏh chus-awa karān, I make you. R999 Tią bỏh chus-akh karān, I make them. Similarly for the other persons, which are all regular, except of y cią suh chu-s karān, he makes him, or for him (not a chu-n) (see

p. 19).

2. Imperfect Tense. This tense is not described by Icvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the Present, except that the Past tense of the Auxiliary Verb is used instead of the Present. Thus, –

I was making.

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The various adverbial suffixes are added as in the case of the Present Tensa. They will be found in detail under the paradigm of the auxiliary verb, and need not be repeated here. One example will suffice. Fią a karān ūsusne, I was not making. As in the case of the Present, in a formal sentence, it is more elegant to place the auxiliary before the present participle. Thus, ta eię tepala bate ossuh khyuwān, he was eating rice. Pronominal suffixes are added as in the Present. Thus,

4 *q bõh ūsus-ath karān, I was making thee. ofe alfeu 717 ąsi ąsi-th karān, we were making thee.

S8 qera běh ūsus-ay kardn, I was making for thee.
veq tiq bõh ūsus-an karan, I was making bim.

E böh ūsus-as karān, I was making for him.
0949 aria běh ūsus-awe karān, I was making you.
I uur alią běh osusakh karān, I was making them.
ET QE atrą suh osu-s karān, he was making him or for him.

(note Usu-12).
And so others.

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