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Present Conjunctive Participle, afa karāni, on making, at the time. of making. It is used in sentences like the following acfa ma suh karāni gauv, he went away as he was doing it. This form is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula, and, according to my panḍit, is only used by rustics. It is more elegant to use the simple Present Participle. Thus, तुच् करान् गौ suh karān gauv.
The PAST CONJUNCTIVE PARticiple. This form corresponds to the Sanskrit Conjunctive Participle in at tvā, or a ya (♬ tya), and means 'having done so and so.' It is fully described in the Article on Primary Suffixes, (No. 2; Vol. lxvii, p. 193), and the more important information there given is here repeated for the sake of convenience. It is formed by adding ith or with kyath, to the root. Thus, करिथ् karith, having made, परिथ् parith, having read. So also करिथ् क्यथ् karith kyath, having made, and afta parith kyath, having read
(ix. i. 5, 6).
Before this suffix a radicala is modified, a radical è becomes
Roots ending in vowels, form their Conjunctive Participle as
follows (ix. i. 7, 8).
fu khi, eat.
khyath, having eaten.
cyath, having drunk.
wuḍ, fly, when it means to obtain salvation (mōkṣa) makes gfaq wujith. Thus, gfą na wujith gauv, having obtained salvation, he went, i.e., he went to heaven, but gfe a wuḍith gauv, having flown, he went, i.e., he flew away (ix. i. 9).
The causal verba maṣeruw, cause to forget, makes faų māṣawith, when the object. forgotten is death. Thus, faų marun māṣawith, having caused to forget death. If anything else is forgotten, it is faq mas rāwith, regularly (ix. i. 10).
When the Conjunctive Participle is repeated, to imply continuous action, the th is dropped, and the final i becomes i-mātrā (ix. i. 11, 12). Thus,
afe afc kari kari, having made, having made, i.e., having
qfa qfa būz', būzi, having kept hearing.
atfe alfe kāri kāri, having kept boiling.
alfe aife tāri tāri, having continued passing people over.
Verbs ending in vowels optionally retain the th. Thus, khě khě, or eч qч khyath khyath, having kept eating. ff di di, or fa fa dith dith, having kept giving.
NEGATIVE CONJUNCTIVE PARTICIPLE. This is formed by adding anay to the root (ix. i. 51). Thus, karanay, not having done. See Primary Suffix, No. 14, (Vol. lxvii, p. 201).
A. Indicative Mood.
1. PRESENT TENSE.
parān chuh, he is
The same form is used both for the Definite, the Habitual, and the Indefinite Present (viii. i. 7-10). Thus, reading, or he is in the habit of reading, or he reads. So we have,ईश्वर् ज़गतस् रछशन् कुरु Içwar zagatas rachān chuh, God protects
ya ang compāna pānas rachan chuh, by himself (i.e., by his own power) he protects himself. Atmanā atmānaṁ pālayati.
व्याकरण् परान् कुड् ल्वकुट vyākaran parān chuh lokutu, the boy is reading (i.e., has arrived at that stage of his studies) grammar.
गङ्गाय गङ्गान् कुछ प्रथ् कुंबस् gaygaya gatshan chuh präth kumbas. He visits (is in the habit of visiting) the Ganges at every kumbha festival.
क्याच् बुर् मुर्च् करान् keyāh chuh murts karān, does he make images? (is that his profession ?)
क्याड् बुद्द् जान् लेखान् kyāh chuh jān lēkhān, is the holy man writing (and going on writing)?
WIE JY G Paa kyāh chuh ratu gyawān, is the good man
This tense is found by adding the Present Tense of the auxiliary verb to the Present Participle of the principal verb, which does not change for gender or number. It is therefore thus conjugated.
Negative form, aa ga karān chusne, I do not make, &c., see
Interrogative form, करान् बुसा karān chusā, करान् बुस karān chuse, &c., do I make ? see p. 12.
Negative Interrogative form, aga karān chusnā, &c., do I not make? see p. 14.
Emphatic form, gefa karan chusti, &c., I do indeed make, see p. 14.
Emphatic Interrogative form, aga karān chustyā, &c., do I indeed make? see p. 14.
In this, and in other periphrastic tenses, it is elegant to put the auxiliary before the verb (viii. i. 22, 23, 24) when standing in a sentence. Thus,
बत बुद्द् सुच् ख्यवान् bato chuk suh khyawān, he is eating rice, is
chuh, though both are correct.
तव पत बुद्द् च्चासनस् प्यठ् बिहिथ् पूजा करान् tave pate chuh āsanas
So the following is the most elegant order, – ईश्वर कुछ वासान् कोशिय içwar chuh āsān kāçiyo andar, God exists in Benares. however, the verb stands by itself as in the paradigm, the auxiliary always follows.
The following are examples of the use of pronominal suffixes, (pp. 15 and ff)—
gaq aa bỗõh chus-ath karān, I make thee (viii. i. 37).
Je gag ana bŏh chus-as karān, I make for him.
de qua acia bŏh chus-akh karān, I make them.
Similarly for the other persons, which are all regular, except gị mua suh chu-s karān, he makes him, or for him (not a chu-n) (see p. 19).
2. IMPERFECT TENSE.
This tense is not described by Ïçvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the Present, except that the Past tense of the Auxiliary Verb is used instead of the Present.
I was making.
The various adverbial suffixes are added as in the case of the Present Tense. They will be found in detail under the paradigm of the auxiliary verb, and need not be repeated here. One example will suffice.ua dgga karān ōsusno, I was not making. As in the case of the Present, in a formal sentence, it is more elegant to place the auxiliary before the present participle. Thus, a dig y gala bate ōs" suh khyawān, he was eating rice.
Pronominal suffixes are added as in the Present.
ge đìgag acıa boh ōsus-ath karān, I was making thee.
ay dìga alla suh ōsu-s karān, he was making him or for him.
And so others.