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النشر الإلكتروني

3. FUTURE TENSE.
This tense is conjugated as follows (viii. ii. 28).
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
1 47 kare, I shall make. pro karav, we shall make.
2 karakh, thou wilt make. aftą kariv, you will make.

3 af kari, he will make. a karan, they will make.

Roots ending in vowels insert y m in the first person of both numbers. Before ri, they insert a y. As usual, all roots ending in ri, except fa ni, take, fedi, give, and for yi, come, change the final ri of the root to a ya (29). We thus get for the future of fe khi, eat, SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 H khyam.

यमव khyamav. . 2 Og khyakh.

ययिव् kheyiv. 3 @fa kheyi.

o khyan.

From fe di, gire, we have,

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 दिम dim.

fraq dimav. 2 दिख dikh.

fefua diyiv. 3 दियि diyi.

दिन din. This tense has a special interrogative form, which is thus conjugated (30, 31).

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Pronominal suffixes are added to this tense as usual, except that the third person singular is slightly irregular, being aziy karyam (he will make me), &c., not fcą karim, &c. (viii. ii. 29). So ip karyas, not afre karis, and all other suffixes added to this person of this tense. When, however, the suffixes of the second person is added there is no irregularity. Thus, afrą kariy, not a karyay. Remember that final

© kh becomes h before a suffix. We thus get the following forms
which will do as samples.
Added to first person, -

*T kara-s, I shall make for him.
Ta kara-n, I sball make him.
Artą karō-8, we shall make for him.

arią karo-n, we shall make him.
Added to second person, -

#Tep karah-as, thou wilt make for him.
Ta karah-an, thou wilt make him.

aperin karyű-s, you will make for him.
Added to third person, -

kary-am, he will make me.
afrey kari-y, he will make thee or for thee. (It should be

remembered that the suffix ath is not used with the

third person).
fra kari-wa, he will make you or for you.
gerą kary-as, he will make him, or for him. (धन् an is not

used with the third person).
aparę kary-akh, he will make them or for them.
Taip karan-as, they will make him or for him.

7 karan-akh, they will make them or for them. Interrogative forms would be such as TH kara-s-e, shall I make for him ?

The feminine impersonal verbs y tsar, to be inwardly wrathful, &c. (see pp. 16 and 22), are thus conjugated, this tense making no distinction between masculine and feminine.

qiy tsary-am, there will be inward anger to me. I shall be

inwardly angry.
qeyft asě tsari, we shall be inwardly angry.
fra tsari-y, thou wilt be inwardly angry.
fra tsari-we, you will be inwardly angry.

går tsary-as, he will be inwardly angry.
que tsary-akh, they will be inwardly angry.

ON THE PAST TENSES GENERALLY.
Kāçmiri has three Şimple (as distinct from Periphrastic) Past
Tenses,—the Past, the Aorist, and the pluperfect.

There are three conjugations of verbs in these tenses. The first conjugation includes all active and impersonal verbs.

The second conjugation includes the following neuter (viii. iii. 77–97) verbs, 1. ye thak, be weary.

19. ve phut, be broken. 2. Topak, go.

20. Tiz rāt, be stopped (also third 3. FH samakh, become visible, conjugation). be seen, meet a person.

21. y bod, dive, sink. 4. @ hòkh, become dry.

22. at wāt,

arrive. 5. au tag, be possible, be known 23, ay wõth, stand

up. how to be done.

24. qa tshyann, be bored, be torn, 6. W lag, be with, suffer pain, fit.

be split. 7. V công, lie down, go to sleep. 25. 999 sapan, 949 sapaz, or gre 8. kts, be wet.

sapad, be complete.

26. 99 wup, burn inside (see 9. Da khots, fear.

below). 10. 99 pats, trust with a loan.

27. 79 frap, evaporate, be digested 11. The rots, be preferred.

be soaked up (see below). 12. 29 vyats, pervade, fit into.

28. ga pray, be pleased. 13. 9 hots, go bad, decay.

29. y lay, be worth. 14. gatsh, be proper (a 30. 14 way, be fit to eat, agree gatsh, go, belongs to the

with, suit. third conjugation).

31. ut khar, be disliked. 15. 2497 wòpaz, be born.

32. at tar, be crossed. 16. 9 daz, be burnt.

33. 9 phar, be stolen, be a cause 17. To rõz, stop, stand.

of loss to. 18. 4 phat, split (of wood), 34. or phēr, go round, rot, regret, sprout (of a plant), sink

be inverted, into water.

35.
मर mar die, (मर

mar.

unite,

45.

belongs optionally (viii. iii.

46. go doș, trickle. 91) to the first conjugation).

47. ta põş, be competent, vic36. T sõr, be spent, exhausted

torious. (of things).

48. HT maş, forget. 37. Te gal, melt.

49. To roș, be angry. 38. 9 tsal, flee, escape.

50. gry ās, be. 39. dal, pass over.

51. @ khas, mount, ascent. 40 e dol, be unused.

52. ve phas, be entangled, caught. 41. The phal, bear fruit, become

53. old (of clothes), be divided.

47 bas, dwell. 42. ** phöll, expand (of a flower). 54. ang las, live long, live in good 43. He mel, meet, be met by a

health.

55. a los, be weary. person. 44. bov, be born, grow. 56. gp was, come down, descend. tra rāv, be lost.

57. a byah, sit. Of the above, the verb the rot, be stopped, may optionally be conjugated in the third conjugation (viii. iii. 84). Thus,2nd Conjugation. Past Participle, p rūt"

Aorist

रोयो rocyv.

Pluperfect para rõcyāv. 3rd Conjugation. Aorist in sense of Past ola rotyov. Pluperfect

Aorist dan rõtyāv. True Pluperfect

रोठियाव rotiyav. The verbs T9 wup, burn inside, and 99 crap, be digested, optionally form their pluperfect after the manner of the third conjugation (viii. iii. 89). Thus,2nd Conjugation. Pluperfect Participle

gera wupyāv,

Teig grapyāv. 3rd Conjugation. True Pluperfect Participle gfruit wupiyāv,

aferra grapiyāv. The above 57 verbs are those given by Isvara-kaula in the Bhutapāda of the Ākhyāta-prakriyā of his Grammar (viii. iii. 77–97), but the following are added to the second conjugation by my Paņạit.

)

58. Teu palaz, be useful.

62. At phòr, quiver. 59. palat, melt, deliquesce. 63. au nac, disappear. 60. ga pun,

come true (of a 64. m tās, be satisfied. curse).

65. ale bās, become clear, evident. 61. un prār, wait.

66. wóbas, increase. The third conjugation includes all other neuter verbs, except those used impersonally.

I shall now describe each of the Past tenses separately.

4 (a).

The VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This Participle, from which, as will be seen, the Past Tense is derived, is formed by adding & u-mātrā to the root. Thus, 47 kar, do; Past Participle ng kar. Its feminine singular is formed by changing u-mātrā to ū-mātrā. Thus, tik kart. The masculine plural by changing the u-mātrā to i-mātrā. Thus, afi kari, and the feminine plural by changing the ū-mātrā to o ya (ě), thus, ar karě. Before the mātrāvowels, the root-vowel of the verb is liable to modifications. But (this is important) before the eye (ě) of the feminine plural, there is no modification. The modifications caused by mātrā-vowels are as follows,

If the root-vowel is a, before u-mātrā, it becomes ą (o). Thus, a kar, make, at karu, pronounced kor, he (was) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is a, before ū-mātrā, it becomes ą (ü). Thus, as kard, pronounced kür, she (was) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is a, before i-mātrā, it becomes a (ai). Thus, aft kari, pronounced kaip, they (masc.) (were) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is ī, before ū-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, ATT mār, kill, hiç mõru, he (was) killed (viii. iii. 20).

If the root-vowel is ā, before u-mātrā, it becomes a (ö). Thus, Ale mòra, pronounced mör, she (was) killed (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is ā, before i-mātra it becomes à (ö). Thus, Alft mari, pronounced möiri, they (masc.) (were) killed (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it becomes yu. Thus, fea liv, plaster, ma lyuva, he (was) plastered.

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it becomes i (pronounced yü). Thus, fera liva, pronounced lyür, she (was) plastered.

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