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النشر الإلكتروني

3. FUTURE TENSE.

This tense is conjugated as follows (viii. ii. 28).
SINGULAR

PLURAL.
1 97 kare, I shall make.

ara karav, we shall make. 2 ure karakh, thou wilt make. afta kariv, you will make. 3 aft kari, he will make.

acą karan, they will make. Roots ending in vowels insert y m in the first person of both numbers. Before x i, they insert ?? y. As usual, all roots ending in ri, except fa ni, take, f di, give, and for yi, come, change the final i of the root to y ya (29). We thus get for the future of ra khi, eat, SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 h khyam

खम khyamav. . 2 akhyakh.

afaa khěyiv. 3 ययि kheyi. .

era khyan.

From f di, give, we have,

SINGULAR.

PLURAL,

1 दिम dimi.

fcaq dimav. 2 दिख dikh.

fefoa diyiv. 3 fero diyi.

fea din. This tense has a special interrogative form, which is thus conjugated (30, 31).

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Pronominal suffixes are added to this tense as usual, except that the third person singular is slightly irregular, being apelą karyam (he will make me), &c., not afrų karim, &c. (viii. ii. 29). So wię karyas, not afrę karis, and all other suffixes added to this person of this tense. When, however, the suffixes of the second person is added there is no irregularity. Thus, afra kariy, not ada karyay. Remember that final

@kh becomes h before a suffix. We thus get the following forms
which will do as samples.
Added to first person, -

kara-s, I shall make for him.
TT kara-n, I sball make him.
Tię karo-s, we shall make for him.

karo-n, we shall make him.
Added to second person, -

Te karah-as, thou wilt make for him.
1 karah-an, thou wilt make him.

aparan karyū-s, you will make for him. Added to third person,

kary-am, he will make me. af kari-y, he will make thee or for thee. (It should be

remembered that the suffix yų ath is not used with the

third person).
afra kari-wa, he will make you or for you.
aparę kary-as, he will make him, or for him. (धन् an is not

used with the third person).
a kary-akh, he will make them or for them.
acap karan-as, they will make him or for him.

karan-akh, they will make them or for them. Interrogative forms would be such as Te kara-8-9, shall I make for him ?

The feminine impersonal verbs tsar, to be inwardly wrathful, &c. (see pp. 16 and 22), are thus conjugated, this tepse making no distinction between masculine and feminine.

riy tsary-am, there will be inward anger to me. I shall be

inwardly angry.
e fr asẽ tsari, we shall be inwardly angry.
free tsari-y, thou wilt be inwardly angry.
fra tsari-we, you will be inwardly angry.

gåą tsary-as, he will be inwardly angry.
qua tsary-akh, they will be inwardly angry.

ON THE PAST TENSES GENERALLY.
Kāçmiri has three Şimple (as distinct from Periphrastic) Past
Tenses,- the Past, the Aorist, and the Pluperfect.

There are three conjugations of verbs in these tenses. The first conjugation includes all active and impersonal verbs.

The second conjugation includes the following neuter (viii. iii. 77–97) verbs, 1. y thak, be weary.

19. phut, be broken, 2. 4 pak, go.

20. Te rot, be stopped (also third 3. FHC samakh, become visible, conjugation). be seen, meet a person.

21. bod, dive, sink. 4. Fe hokh, become dry.

22. at wāt, arrive. 5. No tag, be possible, be known 23. au woth, stand up. how to be done.

24. Cu tshyann, be bored, be torn, , 6. lag, be with, suffer pain, fit.

be split. 7. Du cong, lie down, go to sleep. 25. सपन sapan, सपज़ sapar, or सपद 8. kts, be wet.

sapad, be complete. 9. y khots, fear.

26. 99 wup, burn inside (see

below). 10. 99 pats, trust with a loan.

27. 79 frap, evaporate, be digested 11. The rots, be preferred.

be soaked up (see below). 12. 2 vyats, pervade, fit into.

28.

99 pray, be pleased. 13. 9 hots, go bad, decay.

29. 9 lay, be worth. 14. Je gatsh, be proper (all 30. 04 way, be fit to eat, agree gatsh, go, belongs to the

with, suit. third conjugation).

31. UT khar, be disliked. 15.999 wopaz, be born.

32. at tar, be crossed. 16. daz, be burnt.

33. 9 phar, be stolen, be a cause 17. Tog rõz, stop, stand.

of loss to. 18. u phat, split (of wood), 34. or phêr, go round, rot, regret, sprout (of a plant), sink

be inverted. into water.

35. #T mar die, (T mar, unite,

belongs optionally (viii. iii.

46. dos, tricklo. 91) to the first conjugation).

47. 079 poș, be competent, vic36. Et sör, be spent, exhausted

torious. (of things).

48. #u maş, forget. 37. To gal, melt.

49. To roș, be angry. 38. U tsal, flee, escape.

50. grą ās, be. 39. 5 dal, pass over.

51. Of khas, mount, ascent. 40 glo dõl, be unused.

52. ve phas, be entangled, caught. 41. phal, bear fruit, become old (of clothes), be divided.

53. 49 bas, dwell. 42. ** phöll, expand (of a flower). 54. ut las, live long, live in good

health. 43. mēl, meet, be met by a

55. y los, be weary. person. 44. ga bov, be born, grow. 56. 48 was, come down, descend. 45. tra rāv, be lost.

57. a byah, sit. Of the above, the verb fiz rõļ, be stopped, may optionally be conjugated in the third conjugation (viii. iii. 84). Thus,2nd Conjugation. Past Participle, pe rutu

Aorist

dona rocyov.

Pluperfect , Dar rocyāv.
3rd Conjugation. Aorist in sense of Past dola rotyov.
Pluperfect

Aorist ton rotyāv.
True Pluperfect »

difeyra rotiyāv.
The verbs ta wup, burn inside, and qu çrap, be digested, optionally
form their pluperfect after the manner of the third conjugation (viii.
iii. 89). Thus,-
2nd Conjugation. Pluperfect Participle

Tort wupyāv,

2017 crapyāv. 3rd Conjugation. True Pluperfect Participle gfToit wupiyāv,

अपियाव grapriyav. The above 57 verbs are those given by Icvara-kaula in the Bhūtapāda of the Ākhyātn-prakriyā of his Grammar (viii. iii. 77–97), but the following are added to the second conjugation by my Pandit.

.

58. Ten palaz, be useful.

62. 777 phòr, quiver. 59. Tas palat, melt, deliquesce. 63. a naç, disappear. 60. go pun,

come true (of a 64. at tās, be satisfied. curse).

65. Te bās, become clear, evident. 61. 97 prār, wait.

66. 408 wóbas, increase. The third conjugation includes all other neuter verbs, except those used impersonally.

shall now describe each of the Past tenses separately.

4 (a). THE VERBAL Past PARTICIPLE. This Participle, from which, as will be seen, the Past Tense is derived, is formed by adding ? u-mātrā to the root. Thus, T kar, do; Past Participle atę karu. Its feminine singular is formed by changing u-mātrā to ū-mātrā. Thus, iş kart. The masculine plural by changing the u-mātrā to i-mātrā. Thus, aft kars, and the feminine plural by changing the u-mātrā to y ya (ě), thus, karě. Before the mātrāvowels, the root-vowel of the verb is liable to modifications. But (this is important) before the ya (ě) of the feminine plural, there is no modification. The modifications caused by mātrā-vowels are as follows,

If the root-vowel is a, before u-mātrā, it becomes ą (o). Thus, कर kar, make, aç karu, pronounced kor, he (was) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is a, before ū-mātrā, it becomes a (ü). Thus, the kart, pronounced kür, she (was) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is a, before i-mātrā, it becomes ą (at). Thus, aft kari, pronounced kaiyi, they (masc.) (were) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is ī, before ū-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, ATT mār, kill, i mõru, he (was) killed (viii. iii. 20).

If the root-vowel is ā, before ū-mātrā, it becomes . (ö). Thus, ale mòrt, pronounced mör, she (was) killed (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is ā, before i-mātra it becomes a (ö). Thus, Alft mari, pronounced möiri, they (masc.) (were) killed (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it becomes yu. Thus, fua liv, plaster, polyuv«, he (was) plastered.

If the root-vowel is i, before ü-mātrā it becomes i (pronounced yü). Thus, femper liva, pronounced lyüv, she (was) plastered.

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