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3. FUTURE TENSE.
This tense is conjugated as follows (viii. ii. 28).
karav, we shall make.
karakh, thou wilt make. af kariv, you will make.
3 af kari, he will make.
Roots ending in vowels insert
bers. Before, they inserty.
karan, they will make.
m in the first person of both num
As usual, all roots ending ini,
except fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fa yi, come, change the final i of the root toya (29). We thus get for the future of f khi, eat,—
This tense has a special interrogative form, which is thus conjugated (30, 31).
Pronominal suffixes are added to this tense as usual, except that the third person singular is slightly irregular, being a karyam (he will make me), &c., not af karim, &c. (viii. ii. 29). So a karyas, not af karis, and all other suffixes added to this person of this tense. When, however, the suffixes of the second person is added there is no irregularity. Thus, af kariy, not a karyay. Remember that final
h before a suffix. We thus get the following forms
which will do as samples.
Added to first person,
kara-s, I shall make for him.
kara-n, I shall make him.
ada karō-s, we shall make for him.
ada karō-n, we shall make him.
Added to second person,
karah-as, thou wilt make for him. karah-an, thou wilt make him. karyu-s, you will make for him.
Added to third person,
ų kary-am, he will make me.
af kari-y, he will make thee or for thee. (It should be remembered that the suffixath is not used with the
afakari-wa, he will make you or for you.
kary-as, he will make him, or for him.
kary-akh, he will make them or for them.
(অন্ an is not
karan-akh, they will make them or for them.
Interrogative forms would be such as
kara-s-, shall I make
The feminine impersonal verbs tsar, to be inwardly wrathful, &c. (see pp. 16 and 22), are thus conjugated, this tense making no distinction between masculine and feminine.
tsary-am, there will be inward anger to me. I shall be inwardly angry.
fase tsari, we shall be inwardly angry.
af tsari-y, thou wilt be inwardly angry.
tsary-as, he will be inwardly angry.
tsary-akh, they will be inwardly angry.
ON THE PAST TENSES GENERALLY.
Kāçmiri has three Simple (as distinct from Periphrastic) Past Tenses, the Past, the Aorist, and the Pluperfect.
There are three conjugations of verbs in these tenses. The first conjugation includes all active and impersonal verbs.
The second conjugation includes the following neuter (viii. iii.
khar, be disliked.
tar, be crossed.
phar, be stolen, be a cause
of loss to.
phat, split (of wood), 34. phēr, go round, rot, regret,
sprout (of a plant), sink
Of the above, the verb z rōṭ, be stopped, may optionally be conjugated in the third conjugation (viii. iii. 84). Thus,
2nd Conjugation. Past Participle, ¿ rūṭu
form their Pluperfect after the manner of the third conjugation (viii.
The above 57 verbs are those given by Içvara-kaula in the Bhūtapada of the Akhyāta-prakriyā of his Grammar (viii. iii. 77–97), but the following are added to the second conjugation by my Pandit.
The third conjugation includes all other neuter verbs, except those
I shall now describe each of the Past tenses separately.
4 (a). THE VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE.
This Participle, from which, as will be seen, the Past Tense is derived, is formed by adding u-mātrā to the root. Thus, kar, do; Past Participle kart. Its feminine singular is formed by changing kạru. u-mātrā to ū-mātrā. Thus, kar. The masculine plural by changing aẹ the u-mātrā to i-mātrā. Thus, aft kari, and the feminine plural by changing the u-mātrā to ■ yo (ě), thus, a karě. Before the mātrāvowels, the root-vowel of the verb is liable to modifications. But (this is important) before they (e) of the feminine plural, there is no modification. The modifications caused by mātrā-vowels are as follows,—
If the root-vowel is a, before u-mātrā, it becomes a (o). Thus, kar, make, akar", pronounced kor, he (was) made (viii. iii. 19).
If the root-vowel is a, before ū-mātrā, it becomes a (ü). Thus, kar, pronounced kür, she (was) made (viii. iii. 19).
If the root-vowel is a, before i-mātrā, it becomes a (ai). Thus, aft kari, pronounced kairi, they (masc.) (were) made (viii. iii. 19).
If the root-vowel is a, before u-mātrā, it becomes ō. Thus, mār, kill,
mor", he (was) killed (viii. iii. 20).
If the root-vowel is a, before u-mātrā, it becomes a (ö). Thus, яt mārī, pronounced mör, she (was) killed (viii. iii. 19).
If the root-vowel is a, before i-matra it becomes a (ö). Thus, ift mari, pronounced möiri, they (masc.) (were) killed (viii. iii. 19). If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it becomes yu. Thus, faa liv, plaster, lyuv", he (was) plastered.
If the root-vowel is i, before u-matrā it becomes i (pronounced yü). Thus, fe liv", pronounced lyüv, she (was) plastered.