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3. FUTURE TENSE.
This tense is conjugated as follows (viii. ii. 28).
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
1 at kare, I shall make. aq karav, we shall make.
2 ota karakh, thou wilt make. afra kariv, you will make.

3 afr kari, he will make. aca karan, they will make.

Roots ending in vowels insert ų m in the first person of both numbers. Before ri, they insert ? y. As usual, all roots ending in ri, except for ni, take, fę di, give, and fo yi, come, change the final i of the root to y ya (29). We thus get for the future of fæ khi, eat, SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 pH khyam.

ख्यमव khyamav. 2 er khyakh

enfaa khěyiv.
3 ख्ययि kheyi.

eva khyan.
From fe di, give, we have,-
SINGULAR.

PLURAL
1 feh dima.

दिम dimav. 2 fra dikh.

fefua diyiv. 3 fefo diyi.

fea din. This tense has a special interrogative form, which is thus conjugated (30, 31). SINGULAR.

PLORAL.
1 ar karā, shall I do or make. ara karawe,
2 te karakhe.

करिव kariwi.
3 argit karyā.

ara karane Pronominal suffixes are added to this tense as usual, except that the third person singular is slightly irregular, being mają karyam (he will make me), &c., not afcą karim, &c. (viii. ii. 29). So ip karyas, not afrę karis, and all other suffixes added to this person of this tense. When, however, the suffixes of the second person is added there is no irregularity. Thus, afrą kariy, not ang karyay. Remember that final

ULAR.

© kh becomes h before a suffix. We thus get the following forms which will do as samples. Added to first person,

te kara-s, I shall make for him.

kara-n, I sball make him.
adę karo-s, we shall make for him.

karo-n, we shall make him.
Added to second person,-

TITRE karah-as, thou wilt make for him.
mura karah-an, thou wilt make him.

opera karyū-s, you will make for him.
Added to third person,

apelų kary-am, he will make me.
afrą kari-y, he will make thee or for thee. (It should be

remembered that the suffix qų ath is not used with the

third person).
Afra kari-wa, he will make you or for you.
gerą kary-as, he will make him, or for him. (9ą an is not

used with the third person).
acie kary-akh, he will make them or for them.
Acay karan-as, they will make him or for him.

araç karan-akh, they will make them or for them. Interrogative forms would be such as Fie kara-s-e, shall I make for him ?

The feminine impersonal verbs tsar, to be inwardly wrathful, &c. (see pp. 16 and 22), are thus conjugated, this tense making no distinction between masculine and feminine.

tsary-am, there will be inward anger to me. I shall be

inwardly angry.
qeyft asě tsari, we shall be inwardly angry.
free tsari-y, thou wilt be inwardly angry.
fra tsari-we, you will be inwardly angry.

går tsary-as, he will be inwardly angry.
gia tsary-akh, they will be inwardly angry.

ON THE PAST Tenses GENERALLY.
Kāçmiri has three Şimple (as distinct from Periphrastic) Past
Tenses,— the Past, the Aorist, and the pluperfect.

There are three conjugations of verbs in these tenses. The first conjugation includes all active and impersonal verbs.

The second conjugation includes the following neuter (viii. iii. 7797) verbs,1. yw thak, be weary.

19. phut, be broken. 2. ga pak, go.

20. rõț, be stopped (also third 3. ya samakh, become visible,

conjugation). be seen, meet a person.

21. 3 bod, dive, sink. 4. po hökh, become dry. 22. ana wāt, arrive. 5. A tag, be possible, be known

23. 29 woth, stand up. how to be done.

24. qu tshyann, be bored, be torn, 6. lag, be with, suffer pain, fit.

be split. 7. io công, lie down, go to sleep. 25. 999 sapan, guy sapaz, or gree 8. 7 kts, be wet.

sapad, be complete. 9. Dy khots, fear.

26. g4 wup, burn inside (see

below). " 10. 99 pats, trust with a loan.

27. 79 crap, evaporate, be digested 11. the rots, be preferred.

be soaked up (see below). 12. 29 vyats, pervade, fit into.

28. ga pray, be pleased. 13. *9 hots, go bad, decay. 29. 7 lay, be worth. 14. gatsh, be proper (ap 30. way, be fit to eat, agree gatsh, go, belongs to the

with, suit. third conjugation).

31. UT khar, be disliked. 15. 499 wòpaz, be born.

32. at tar, be crossed. 16. daz, be burnt.

33. FT phar, be stolen, be a cause 17. do rõz, stop, stand.

of loss to. 18. a phat, split (of wood), 34. RT phêr, go round, rot, regret,

sprout (of a plant), sink be inverted.
into water.

35. AT mar die, (#7 mar, unite,

belongs optionally (viii. iii. 46. dos, tricklo.

91) to the first conjugation). 47. ota põş, be competent, vic36. T sõr, be spent, exhausted

torious. (of things).

48. Ar maş, forget. 37. w gal, melt.

49. Tu rūs, be angry. 38. yo tsal, flee, escape.

50. are ās, be. 39. dal, pass over.

51. @ khas, mount, ascent. so dol, be unused. 41. & phal, bear fruit, become

52. 4 phas, be entangled, caught. old (of clothes), be divided. 53. 48 bas, dwell. 42. m phöll, expand (of a flower). 54. las, live long, live in good 43. He mēl, meet, be met by a health. person.

55. a lõs, be weary. 44. bov, be born, grow. 56. af was, come down, descend. 45. Tra rāv, be lost.

57. abyah, sit. Of the above, the verb te rāt, be stopped, may optionally be conjugated in the third conjugation (viii. iii. 84). Thus,2nd Conjugation. Past Participle, pe rūtu

Aorist tota rocyov.

Pluperfect „ para rocyāv. 3rd Conjugation. Aorist „in sense of Past dola rotyov.

Pluperfect „ „ Aorist non rõțyāv. True Pluperfect ,

रोटियाव rotiyav. The verbs ya wup, burn inside, and 79 crap, be digested, optionally form their Pluperfect after the manner of the third conjugation (viii. iii. 89). Thus,2nd Conjugation. Pluperfect Participle

gera wupyāv,

90114 crapyāv. 3rd Conjugation. True Pluperfect Participle gfreit wupiyāv,

Afugla grapiyāv. The above 57 verbs are those given by Içvara-kaula in the Bhūtapāda of the Ākhyāta-prakriyā of his Grammar (viii. iii. 7797), but the following are added to the second conjugation by my Paņạit.

58. Ten palaz, be useful. 62. Hit phòr, quiver.
59. 43 palat, melt, deliquesce. 63. an naç, disappear.
60. ga pun, come true (of a 64. Ota tõş, be satisfied.
curse).

65. 18 bās, become clear, evident. 61. ar prār, wait.

66. 8 wõbas, increase. The third conjugation includes all other neuter verbs, except those used impersonally. I shall now describe each of the Past tenses separately.

4 (a). The VERBAL PAST PARTICIPLE. This Participle, from which, as will be seen, the Past Tense is derived, is formed by adding & u-mātrā to the root. Thus, a kar, do; Past Participle aç karu. Its feminine singular is formed by changing u-mātrā to ū-mātrā. Thus, karū. The masculine plural by changing the u-mātrā to i-mātrā. Thus, aft kari, and the feminine plural by changing the u-mātrā to a ye (ě), thus, apie karě. Before the mātrāvowels, the root-vowel of the verb is liable to modifications. But (this is important) before the a ya (ě) of the feminine plural, there is no modification. The modifications caused by mātrā-vowels are as follows,

If the root-vowel is a, before u-mātrā, it becomes a (o). Thus, at kar, make, *ę karu, pronounced kor, he (was) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is a, before ū-mātrā, it becomes a (ü). Thus, at karit, pronounced kür, she (was) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is a, before i-mātrā, it becomes a (ai). Thus, oft kari, pronounced kafgi, they (masc.) (were) made (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is ā, before ū-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, ATT mār, kill, alq mõru, he (was) killed (viii. iii. 20).

If the root-vowel is ā, before ü-mātrā, it becomes à (ö). Thus, At māru, pronounced mör, she (was) killed (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is ā, before i-mātra it becomes à (ö). Thus, Alft mari, pronounced möiri, they (masc.) (were) killed (viii. iii. 19).

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it becomes yu. Thus, fea liv, plaster, a lyuvu, he (was) plastered.

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it becomes i (pronounced yü). Thus, fera livi, pronounced lyür, she (was) plastered.

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