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a we, the mātrā-vowel remains unchanged. Thus, *[ +0 kạru + we, he (was) made by you, becomes aaa kar#we, and is pronounced korwe, and not koruwe. So enten karl + a we made (fem.) by you, becomes a karu-we, and is pronounced kürwe. Similarly, when a mātrā-vowel is followed by any other vocalized syllable, it remains a mātrā-vowel. Thus, nag kæru-n-as, not sure karunas, ( was) made-by-him-I. Even in such cases, Içvara-kaula (as in viii. iii. 3 and 4) writes aina karuwe, anfaa likhiwe, &c., with the mātrā-vowel apparently fully pronounced, but in this he is, according to my Paņạit, incorrect, and it is a mere slip of the pen.

When, in the feminine plural, y ya (ë) follows one of the letters ts, tsh, 97 %, or ñ, the ya becomes a . (viii. iii. 47). Thus, for dits + ye becomes from ditse, they (fem.) (were) given. So

? hěts +7 ye, becomes y hětso, they (fem.) (were) taken. So al wāts +7 ye becomes 419 wātso, they (fem.) arrived, duz + ya becomes a daze, they (fem.) were burnt (viii. iii. 7, 12).

So also g y is often elided after a 8 (viii. iii. 13). Thus, qię ās+ q ye, becomes are ase, they (fem.) were. v bas + yo, 4 base, they (fem.) dwelt. Isvara-kaula restricts this to verbs of the 2nd conjugation, but, according to my Paņdit, qç y is also elided after all verbs of the 1st conjugation, except in the case of n tsas, laugh loudly (impersonal). Thus, from *8 kas, fry, feminine plural *kase, but, from qe tsas, tsasě.

In the case of the following verbs of the 1st conjugation, the I y may, according to my Paņạit, be optionally retuined. Te thās bury ; # das, beat; 78 mus, eat improperly; #søs, break wind. Thus, a 14 thâse, or gia thāsě.

It will be seen that the feminine of this participle ends in ü-mātrā, in ye (ě), or in . Before these terminations, the final consonant of the Past Participle undergoes certain changes. These changes only occur in the first and second conjugations. They are as follows :

Final k, a kh, and a g, become c, ch, and Tj respectively, before both ū-mālrā and a ya (ě) (viii. iii. 7). Thus,

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The verbs fue pih, grind; y muh, deceive; F# sah, bear; goh, grind; and a tsoh, suck, under similar circumstances change their final <h to a $ (viii. iii. 75). Thus,

og pyuh", he (was) ground; but for pics, she (was) gronnd ; and for piçě, they (fem.) were ground.

Combining what is said here, together with what has been said above (pp. 40 and ff.) regarding vowel changes, we come to the three following general rules, all of which apply only to the first and second conjugations, and do not apply to the third.

1. In the Past Participle masculine, both singular and plural, only the root vowel, and not the final consonant, is liable to change.

2. In the Past Participle feminine singular, both the root vowel and the final consonant are liable to change.

3. In the Past Participle feminine plural, only the final consonant, and not the root vowel, is liable to change.

These three rules are most important, as the whole scheme of conjugating the Past Tense depends upon them,

IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES. The following verbs have irregular Past Participles. The irregularities are, of course, carried through the Past tense.

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nyūv.

fore niye

ata niy.

fara niye.

fa ni, take (viii. a

iii. 6, 34, ix. i. 38).

&o. (viii, iii.

* ug las, is sometimes used regularly by the vulgar, 96). In the fem. sing. Içvara-kaula sometimes writes

teha, and sometimes

lütshü. According to my Paņdit, the latter is the correct form.

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