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If the root-vowel is i, before i-Mātrā, it is unchanged. Thus, fafa live, they (masc.) (were) plastered.

If the root-vowel is ī, before u-mātrā, it becomes . Thus, etc cir, squeeze out, y cyūra, he (was) squeezed out.

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it is unchanged. Thus, ar cirl, she (was) squeezed out.

If the root-vowel is i, before i-mātrā it is unchanged. Thus, oft cir, they (masc.) (were) squeezed out.

If the root-vowel u orů, it always remains unchanged. Thus, from 797 buz, parch, me buzu, vrtne buz, yfør buz. From a lūt, rob, z lūta,

on lūta, afa lūti.
If the root-vowel is ē, before u-mātrā, it becomes yū. Thus,

, फेर phêr, be turned, "phyūra, he (was) turned (viii. iii. 21, 22).

If the root-vowel is ē, before ü-mātrā, it becomes i. Thus, the phim, she (was) turned (viii. iii. 23).

If the root-vowel is e, before i-mātrā, it becomes i. Thus, f phire, they (were) turned (viii. iii. 21, 22).

If the root-vowel is 7, before u-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, 119 böz, hear, buzu, he (was) heard (viii. iii. 24).

If the root-vowel is 7, before ü-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, y būza, she (was) heard (viii. iii. 25).

If the root-towel is ā, before i-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, büz', they (masc.) (were) heard (viii. iii. 24).

Before gě or va of the feminine plural, the root-vowel is always unchanged. Thus, ei karš, arai mārë, femra livě, ati cīrē, ger buze, फेर्य pherd, बोज़ bz0. .

When any pronominal suffix except a we is added to a form ending in a mātrā-vowel, that mätrā-vowel becomes fully pronounced, but the modification of the root-vowel remains unchanged. Thus, ar kar« (pronounced kor) + an, becomes * karun, pronounced korun, and not karun or korn.

So Aç mõru + Ę becomes ANTq mörun, and so on. case, i-mātrā is pronounced as a short German ü. Thus, the karm (pronounced kür) +n, becomes karu, pronounced kürün. If the suffix is

J. 1. 6

In such a

a we, the mātrā- vowel remains unchanged. Thus, ir ta karu + we, he (was) made by yon, becomes aya kar#ve, and is pronounced korwe, and not koruwe. So ne karit + we made (fem.) by you, becomes thema kart-wa, and is pronounced kürwa. Similarly, when & mätrā-vowel is followed by any other vocalized syllable, it remains a mātrā-vowel. Thus, aqag karw-n-as, not afrarą kærunas, (was) made-by-him-I. Even in such cases, Içvara-kaula (as in viii. iii. 3 and 4) writes ara karuwe, alfa likhiwe, &c., with the mātrā-vowel apparently fully pronounced, but in this he is, according to my Pandit, incorrect, and it is a mere slip of the pen.

When, in the feminine plural, y yo (ě) follows one of the letters ts, tsh, 97 %, orñ, the ye becomes a (viii. iii. 47). Thus, , feq dits + a ye becomes fex dits, they (fem.) (were) given. So 9 hěts +ye, becomes y hětsa, they (fem.) (were) taken. So 919 wāta +7 ye becomes a wāts', they (fem.) arrived, duz +2 ya becomes a daze, they (fem.) were burnt (viii. iii. 7, 12).

So also ? y is often elided after s (viii. iii. 13). Thus, arę ā8 + q yo, becomes are āsa, they (fem.) were. बस् bas+य y°, बस bas', they (fem.) dwelt. Iqvara-kaula restricts this to verbs of the 2nd conjugation, but, according to my Paņdit, qy is also elided after all verbs of the 1st conjugation, except in the case of yo tsas, laugh loudly (impersonal). Thus, from *kas, fry, feminine plural me kase, but, from 9 tsas, gan tsasě.

In the case of the following verbs of the 1st conjugation, the ay may, according to my Pandit, be optionally retained. Ty thās bury; 4 das, beat; 99 mus, eat improperly; sos, break wind. Thus, g14 thāse, or gia thāsě.

It will be seen that the feminine of this participle ends in ū-mātrā, in ye (ě), or in Before these terminations, the final consonant of the Past Participle undergoes certain changes. These changes only occur the first and second conjugations. They are as follows :

Final k, kh, and a g, become c, ch, and j respectively, before both o ú-mätrā and a ya (ě) (viii. iii. 7). Thus,

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From Root va thak, bo weary ; thşk”, he (was) weary ; but dia thac",

she (was) weary; uy thacě, they (fem.) (were) weary. ate lekh, write ; unelyükh", he (was) written; but more

licha, she (was) written; ha lechě, they (fem.) (were) written. 20 dag, pound ; dag", he (was) pounded ; but * daja,

she (was) pounded; dajě, they (fem.) (were) pounded. & $, & th, and <d, become c, çch, and j respectively, before ya (ě), but not before i-mātrā (viii. iii. 70). Thus,From Root ma phat, be split; ut phaļ“, he (was) split; at phat", she

(was) split; but 4 phacě, they (fem.) (were) split. HT maş, forget ; ste matha, he (was) forgotten ; # mathe, she (was) forgotten; but he machě, they (fem.) (were)

forgotten. siz gand, bind ; *ie ganda, he (was) bound ; gands, she

(was) bound; but i ganjě, they (fem.) (were) bound. qt, th, d, and q n, become te, tsh, 2, and q ñ respectively, before both ū-mātrā, and before ye (ě), which latter then becomes a by the rule given on the last page (viii. iii. 72, 73). Thus, – From Root aa kat, spin ; at kąt", he (was) spun ; but kate*, she

(was) spun; 79 katso, they (fem.) (were) spun. au woth, arise ; my vộth“, he arose ; but to voteh®, she

arose, and a wotshe, they (fem.) arose. „ ** lad, build ; się ląd", he (was) built ; but lazú, she

(was) built, and we laza, they (fem.) (were) built. ta ran, cook ; t ran", ho (was) cooked ; but tog rañ, she

(was) cooked, and to raño, they (fem.) (were) cooked. l becomes aj before both u-matrā and ya (ě) (viii. iii. 74).

Thus,From Root yetsal, fleo ; tre tiqla, he fled ; but sin teqja, she fled, and

u tsajě, they (fem.) filed.

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The verbs fux pih, grind; I muh, deceive; F sah, bear; TY goh, grind; and a tseh, suck, under similar circumstances change their final <h to a $ (viii. iii. 75). Thus,

og pyuha, he (was) ground; but fun pic", she (was) gronnd ; and fuw piçě, they (fem.) were ground.

Combining what is said here, together with what has been said above (pp. 40 and ff.) regarding vowel changes, we come to the three following general rules, all of which apply only to the first and second conjugations, and do not apply to the third.

1. In the Past Participle masculine, both singular and plural, only the root vowel, and not the final consonant, is liable to change.

2. In the Past Participle feminine singular, both the root vowel and the final consonant are liable to change.

3. In the Past Participle feminine plural, only the final consonant, and not the root vowel, is liable to change.

These three rules are most important, as the whole scheme of conjugating the Past Tense depends upon them.

IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES.

The following verbs have irregular Past Participles. The irregularities are, of course, carried through the Past tense.

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khatshe

[or खन

(or ofan

** khas, mount tą khạth"[or khạtis ha, ofa khạthi (viii. iii. 66). dia khatu].

khạte*]. khat']. बस vas, descend बंधु upthe. or watsha. afu wathi.

(66).

[or o khats'].

To watshe.

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for dils*.

fafa diti.

दिन dites.

fe di, give (32). Y dyut".
fe khi, eat (viii. etą khyauv. or khěye. khy?y.

iii. 6, ix. i. 37).

er kheye.

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* We las, is sometimes used regularly by the vulgar, thus, og læs“, &o. (vili. ii.

96). In the fem. sing. Isvara-kaula sometimes writes

lytsha, and sometimes

lütsha. According to my Paņạit, the latter is the correct form.

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