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If the root-vowel is į, before i-Mātrā, it is unchanged. Thus, fafa livi, they (masc.) (were) plastered.

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā, it becomes . Thus, at cir, squeeze out, y cyūra, he (was) squeezed out.

If the root-vowel is i, before u-mātrā it is unchanged. Thus, cirt, she (was) squeezed out.

If the root-vowel is i, before s-mātrā it is unchanged. Thus, oft cir*, they (masc.) (were) squeezed out.

If the root-vowel u or ū, it always remains unchanged. Thus, from gu buz, parch, w buz“, ona buz, gfə buz. From lüt, rob, et lūta, et lūta,

lūta, afa lūti. If the root-vowel is ē, before u-mātrā, it becomes . Thus, et phēr, be turned, ut phyūr, he (was) turned (viii. iii. 21, 22).

If the root-vowel is e, before ü-mātrā, it becomes i. Thus, fi phirt, she (was) turned (viii. iii. 23).

If the root-vowel is e, before i-mātrā, it becomes i. Thus, aft phīri, they (were) turned (viii. iii. 21, 22).

If the root-vowel is ī, before u-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, 119 būz, hear, a búza, he (was) heard (viii. iii. 24).

If the root-vowel is o, before u-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, būzų, she (was) heard (viii. iii. 25).

If the root-towel is ā, before i-mātrā, it becomes ū. Thus, T būz', they (masc.) (were) heard (viii. iii. 24).

Before qě or <a of the feminine plural, the root-vowel is always unchanged. Thus, कर्य kare, मार्य mar, लिव्य liv४, चौर्य cirk, बुज़ burs, फेर्य pherd, बोज़ bori.

When any pronominal suffix except a w is added to a form ending in a mātrā-vowel, that mātrā-vowel becomes fully pronounced, but the modification of the root-vowel remains unchanged. Thus, at kør« (pronounced kor) +an, becomes ara karun, pronounced korun, and not karun or korn. So Hiq mõru tą becomes TTT mörun, and so on. case, i-mātrā is pronounced as a short German ü. Thus, ale kara (pronounced kür) +ąn, becomes kartun, pronounced kürün. If the suffix is

J. 1. 6

In such a

a we, the mātrā-vowel remains unchanged. Thus, *x + kara + we, he (was) made by you, becomes mira karuve, and is pronounced korwe, and not koruwe. So kąra + a wo made (fem.) by you, becomes the kæru-we, and is pronounced kürwe. Similarly, when a mātrā-vowel is followed by any other vocalized syllable, it remains a mātrā-vowel. Thus, krap karw-n-as, not orang karunas, (was) made-by-him-I. Even in such cases, Icvara-kaula (as in viii. iii. 3 and 4) writes tina karuwa, alfa likhiwe, &c., with the mātrā-vowel apparently fully pronounced, but in this he is, according to my Pandit, incorrect, and it is a mere slip of the pen.

When, in the feminine plural, y ya (ě) follows one of the letters ts, tsh, 7%, orñ, the ya becomes < « (viii. iii. 47). Thus, foydits + yo becomes from dits, they (fem.) (were) given. So 9 hěts += ye, becomes y hěts, they (fem.) (were taken. So ai wāts +7 ya becomes a19 wāts, they (fem.) arrived, duz + ya becomes a daze, they (fem.) were burnt (viii. iii. 7, 12).

So also q y is often elided after ę s (viii. iii. 13). Thus, qe ā8 + q yo, becomes are ase, they (fem.) were. बस् bas+य y°, बस bas",

, they (fem.) dwelt. Içvara-kaula restricts this to verbs of the 2nd conjugation, but, according to my Pandit, qy is also elided after all verbs of the 1st conjugation, except in the case of 7 tsas, laugh loudly (impersonal). Thus, from * kas, fry, feminine plural * kase, but, from 98 tsas, tsasě.

In the case of the following verbs of the 1st conjugation, the I y may, according to my Pandit, be optionally retained. ठास thas bury ; t das, beat; 78 mus, eat improperly ; # sop, break wind. Thus, at thāse, or girl thāsě.

It will be seen that the feminine of this participle ends in ū-mātrā, in ye (ě), or in a. Before these terminations, the final consonant of the Past Participle undergoes certain changes. These changes only occur in the first and second conjugations. They are as follows :

Final k, u kh, and 1 g, become c, ch, and otj respectively, before both au-mālrā and a ya (R) (viii. iii. 7). Thus,

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From Root on thak, be weary ; də thak, he (was) weary ; but dg thạc”,

she (was) weary; yg thacě, they (fem.) (were) weary. eta lekh, write ; melyükh", he (was) written ; but

licht, she (was) written; lechě, they (fem.) (were) written. tu dag, pound ; a dąg", he (was) pounded ; but a daja,

she (was) pounded ; 7 dajě, they (fem.) (were) pounded. { }, & th, and <d, become ? c, çch, and of j respectively, before yo (ě), but not before ū-mātrā (viii. iii. 70). Thus,From Root 8 phat, be split ; a phaļ, he (was) split; the phat", she

(was) split; but you phacě, they (fem.) (were) split. HT maş, forget ; # mathe, he (was) forgotten; # math, she (was) forgotten; but no machè, they (fem.) (were)

forgotten. siz gand, bind ; się ganda, he (was) bound; fe gands, she

(was) bound; but sju ganjě, they (fem.) (were) bound. I t, ļ th, 7d, and q n, become 1 ts, tsh, %, and ñ respectively, before both ū-mātră, and before ye (ě), which latter then becomes a by the rule given on the last page (viii, iii. 72, 73). Thus,From Root ang kat, spin ; at kat”, he (was) spun; but my kąte", she

(was) spun; ~ katso, they (fem.) (were) spun. u věth, arise ; ni wộth“, he arose ; but it wộteh“, she

arose, and all wotshe, they (fem.) arose. ** lad, build ; og lad”, he (was) built ; but om laz®, she

(was) built, and org laze, they (fem.) (were) built. wa ran, cook ; tą ran-, ho (was ) cooked ; but tog raña, she

(was) cooked, and to raño, they (fem.) (were) cooked. l becomes aj before both ū-matrā and ye (ě) (viii. ii. 74).

Thus,From Root yo tsal, flee ; or tsal®, he fled ; but she teqja, she fled, and

9 tsajě, they (fem.) filed.

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The verbs for pih, grind; * muh, deceive; FP sah, bear ; 78 goh, grind; and 8 tsah, suck, under similar circumstances change their final <h to Ę $ (viii. iii. 75). Thus,

oy pyuh", he (was) ground; but for piça, she (was) gronnd ; and fow piçě, they (fem.) were ground.

Combining what is said here, together with what has been said above (pp. 40 and ff.) regarding vowel changes, we come to the three following general rules, all of which apply only to the first and second conjugations, and do not apply to the third.

1. In the Past Participle masculine, both singular and plural, only the root vowel, and not the final consonant, is liable to change.

2. In the Past Participle feminine singular, both the root vowel and the final consonant are liable to change.

3. In the Past Participle feminine plural, only the final consonant, and not the root vowel, is liable to change.

These three rules are most important, as the whole scheme of conjugating the Past Tense depends upon them.

IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES.

The following verbs have irregular Past Participles. The irregularities are, of course, carried through the Past tense.

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khatshe

[or नि

og khas, mount khạthu[or te khatcht, ofa khạthi (viii. iii. 66). og khạt"].

Cor de

khạte*]. khat']. ro vas, descend to wath". to watsha.

(66).

[or खन khats).

aifu wathi.

ak watsha.

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* ue las, is sometimes used regularly by the vulgar, thus, tig læs“, &o. (viii. iii.

96). In the fem. sing. Içvara-kaula sometimes writes

lütsha, and sometimes

lüteha. According to my Paņdit, the latter is the correct form.

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