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4 (6). THE PAST Tense. This tense is peculiar to the first and second conjugations. It does not occur in the third conjugation. It describes something which has happened lately, e.g., rą karun, he bas (just) made.
It is formed from the Past Participle inę v.' This Participle is Passive in the case of verbs of the first conjugation. Thus, ar karu, done, 4 asu (impersonal verb), laughed. It is Neuter in the case of verbs of the second conjugation. Thus, y bộve, become. Verbs of the first conjugation are therefore passive in construction. Instead of saying 'I made this,' we must say this was made by me,' TE RI FT yih mě karu, this (yih) by me (mě) made (karu). Here the original object of the sentence has become the grammatical subject, and the logical subject has been put into the case of the agent. If the object (grammatical subject) is feminine, the participle must be feminine. If it is plural, the participle must be plural. Thus,
karu mě karu, the bracelet (masc.) was made by me.
zçü mě kart, the tablet (fem.) was made by me. *ft wafe kąrë mě kørt, the bracelets were made by me.
qe nomreli pacě mě karš, the tablets were made by me. As regards the original subject, it is put in the agent case, and may also be added to the verb in the form of a pronominal suffix of the agent case. This must always be done in the second person singular and plural. These suffixes are given on pp. 15 and ff. For the sake of ready reference, they are here repeated.
9 akh. The initial e a is elided when following a vowel. When the pronominal suffix is added to a verb (it is always added in the case of the second person), the original subject (now agent), if a pronoun, may be omitted. Thus, for 'he made,' we may say,
- On the Kāçmīri Verb. [No. 1, (a) afa mitami karą, by him made, or (6) HH Tą tami karu-n, by him made-by-him,
or c) * kæru-n, made-by-bim. In the second person we cannot use the first or (a) form. We can only say,
(6) para tsẽ karu-th, by thee made-by-thee,
or (c) RTU karu-th, made-by-thee. So in the plural.
(6) au siqa tohě kare-ve, by you made-by-you,
or (c) *Ta kąru-wé, made-by-you. We cannot say च कर tad kari or बध का tihā kare.
This Passive construction is called in Sanskrit Grammar the kar. maņi prayoga, and is described in Içvara-kaula's Grammar under that name (viii. iii. 3).
The IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION. Impersonal verbs are used passively with all persons. The terminations are the same as in the case of active verbs. An example is,
(a) æfa 48 tạmö asa, by him it was laughed, or (6) alfa 499 tạmi qsu-n, by him it was laughed-by-him,
or (c) ea qsu-n, it was laughed-by-bim, all three of which mean'he laughed’ (viii. iii. 3). So 4 asu-m, I laughed.
The two verbs an tsuv, quarrel, and to mõrav, bear pain, may be used impersonally, and are then put in the feminine (viii. iii. 9).
Thus, gay tsuvấn, quarrelling was done-by-him, he quarrelled, the verb agreeing with the nominative r har, a quarrel, which is feminine. So aq mõravun, pain was suffered-by-bim, he suffered pain, the true nominative being some feminine word like 975 pid, pain, understood.
In these cases we may use all the three forms, except, as before, in : the second person. Thus,
(a) afH ya tạmi tsuvi,
These two words can even be used in the fom. plur. Thus, qara, he quarrelled (many times); Atraa mõravyan, he suffered pains.
The following verbs (repeated from pp. 16 and 22) are also imporsonal but have this peculiarity that they are conjugated with suffixes of the dative instead of suffixes of the agent, and are also in the feminine.
T tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
ajo tyamb, look eagerly (conjugated in the third conjugation). Thus, my te gri-s, not satsarth-n, there was inward anger to him,
he was angry.
rency tsar-m, I was angry. So my wutsay, thou wast burnt. These verbs are given here, because the first six are used in the Past Tense. Riy tyamb, look engerly, belongs to the third conjugation, and does not use the Past Tenge.
This impersonal construction, whether with the Dative or with the Agent, is called in Sanskrit, the bhāvē-prayoga.
Neuter Verbs. Neuter verbs of the second conjugation, having their Past Participle nenter, are conjugated, in the Past tenses actively. They thus take the pronominal suffixes of the nominative, and agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. The addition of the pronominal suffixes is obligatory. They are here quoted for ready reference. SINGULAR.
94 awo. 3. There are no nominative suffixes of the first person plural or of the third person.
J. 1. 7
Taking, therefore, the verb ga bỏv, become, for 'I became'we may say,–
(6) egy běh bộvu-s,
or (c) gp bộvu-s. We cannot say a běh bộvų, any more than we can say mua tõhě kæru.
These preliminaries being understood, I shall, in the paradigms, only give the (c) forms of the past tenses. From these the (6) forms and (when they exist) the (a) forms can easily be deduced.
A. First CONJUGATION. (a) Transitive Verb (viii. iii. 3-9) (c. forms only) ‘I made,' Lit. 'he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, bim, us, &c.'
Feminine.! Masculino.' | Feminine. nę karw, made. karu. afc kari. l empet kară.
Verbs ending in vowels are slightly irregular in the masculine singular and plural, and in the feminine singular, which latter is the
1 E.g. The object of the sentence, which has now become the grammatical subject, as explained above.
% Or kare-m, and so throughont.