صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

FUT hahar, to hahara sto hahar fe hahạri voi hahară, marry off (a (rare).

(rare). girl) (76)

haraca

haraçě.

हरण

or

or हरश्य

4 (6). The Past Tense.

This tense is peculiar to the first and second conjugations. It does not occur in the third conjugation. It describes something which has happened lately, e.g., virą karun, he has (just) made.

It is formed from the Past Participle in Fr.' This Participle is Passive in the case of verbs of the first conjugation. Thus, atę kar», done, se as a (impersonal verb), laughed. It is Nenter in the case of verbs of the second conjugation. Thus, bộve, become. Verbs of the first conjugation are therefore passive in construction. Instead of saying 'I made this,' we must say 'this was made by me,' I ar yih karu, this (yih) by me (mě) made (kar«). Here the original object of the sentence has become the grammatical subject, and the logical subject has been put into the case of the agent. If the object (grammatical subject) is feminine, the participle must be feminine. If it is plural, the participle must be plural. Thus,- –

at an aç karu mě karu, the bracelet (masc.) was made by me. पंटू on the palá mě kara, the tablet (fem.) was made by me. aft an afr kari mě kạrı, the bracelets were made by me.

The main pacě karě, the tablets were made by me. As regards the original subject, it is put in the agent case, and may also be added to the verb in the form of a pronominal suffix of the agent case. This must always be done in the second person singular and plural. These suffixes are given on pp. 15 and ff. For the sake of ready reference, they are here repeated.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

akh.

3rd

अन् an. . The initial y a is elided when following a vowel. When the pronominal suffix is added to a verb (it is always added in the case of the second person), the original subject (now agent), if a pronoun, may be omitted.

Thus, for' he made,' we may say,–

(a) ofa me tạmi karu, by him made,
or (6) fa miq tąmi karu-n, by him made-by-him,

or (c) alta karu-n, made-by-bim. In the second person we cannot use the first or (a) form. We can only say,

(6) ya tsè kąru-th, by thee made-by-thee,

or (c) atrą karu-th, made-by-thee. So in the plural.

(6) - Ta tõhè kara-we, by you made-by-you,

or (c) TT karu-wi, made-by-you. We cannot say qq tsè kąru or an tę tõhè kara.

This Passive construction is called in Sanskrit Grammar the kar. mari prayoga, and is described in Isvara-kaula's Grammar under that name (viii. iii. 3).

The IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION. Impersonal verbs are used passively with all persons. The terminations are the same as in the case of active verbs. An example is,

(a) afa te tạmi qsa, by him it was laughed, or (b) a a7 tạmi qsu-n, by him it was laughed-by-him,

or (c) 497 asu-n, it was laughed-by-him, all three of which mean' he laughed' (viii. iii. 3). So 4 asu-m, I laughed.

The two verbs y tsuv, quarrel, and ta mõrav, bear pain, may be used impersonally, and are then put in the feminine (viii. iii. 9).

Thus, you tsuvân, quarrelling was done-by-him, he quarrelled, the verb agreeing with the nominative r har, a quarrel, which is feminine. So witam mērqvæn, pain was suffered-by-bim, he suffered pain, the true nominative being some feminine word like ate pid, pain, understood.

In these cases we may use all the three forms, except, as before, in the second person. Thus,

(a) aifa tam• tsuva, or (6) afa

tami tsuvan, or (c) ang tsuvan.

y phuh,

These two words can even be used in the fem. plur. Thus, Tara, he quarrelled (many times); ta mõravyan, he suffered pains.

The following verbs (repeated from pp. 16 and 22) are also imper. sonal but have this peculiarity that they are conjugated with suffixes of the dative instead of suffixes of the agent, and are also in the feminine.

tsar, be inwardly wrathful. FW phos, ditto.

ditto. € marts, ditto. T9 wuts, be burnt. fuy phite, forget.

piy tyamb, look eagerly (conjugated in the third conjugation). Thus, the teart., not your teard-n, there was inward anger to him,

he was angry
train tsart.y, not they teard.th, thou wast angry.

na tsarti-m, I was angry. So gry wutsay, thou wast burnt. These verbs are given here, because the first six are used in the Past Tense. Du tyamb, look engerly, belongs to the third conjugation, and does not use the Past Tenge.

This impersonal construction, whether with the Dative or with the Agent, is called in Sanskrit, the bhāve-prayoga.

Neuter Verbs. Neuter verbs of the second conjugation, having their Past Participle neuter, are conjugated, in the Past tenses actively. They thus take the pronominal suffixes of the nominative, and agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. The addition of the pronominal suffixes is obligatory. They are here quoted for ready reference. SINGULAR.

PLURAL

1. बस् as.
2. Yakh.

97 awe.
3.
There are no nominative suffixes of the first person plural or of the

third person.

J. 1.7

Taking, therefore, the verb ge bov, become, for ‘I became'we may say, —

(6) Ty bõh bộvu-s,

or (c) 4gp bộvu-s. We cannot say na běh bịvw, any more than we can say av til tõhě karu.

These preliminaries being understood, I shall, in the paradigms, only give the (c) forms of the past tenses. From these the (b) forms and (when they exist) the (a) forms can easily be deduced.

A. First CONJUGATION. (a) Transitive Verb (viii. iii. 3-9) (c. forms only) 'I made,' Lit. 'he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, bim, us, &c.'

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

Sing
Tą karu-m. Hy kơri.m. afią kari-m.

afų kari-m. Perą karya-m.* 2 ára karu-th. tipy kas-th.fų kari-th. eią karya-th. na karu-n. Hşq kart-n.

afrą kari-n.

karya-n.

3

Plur.

i aç kar«. * karū.

*fc kari.

ang karð. 2 qa karæ-we. Hea kari.we. *fta kari-we.

afta kari-we. ia karě-wo. 3 Tu karu-kh. a karü-kh. fra kari-kh. teica karya-kh.

Verbs ending in vowels are slightly irregular in the masculine singular and plural, and in the feminine singular, which latter is the

| E.g. The object of the sentence, which has now become the grammatical subject, as explained above.

Or kare-m, and so thronghont.

« السابقةمتابعة »