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eko ts, be wet 9 katu, 9 ko tsa

(63).
** hots, decay * hộta. ਵੀਜ਼ hts.

.
Sfi hột.

hots. (63). daz, be * dada.

दंजू das. burnt (64). do rõz, stop rūda.

रूदि rids.

रोज roz. (64). 47994 vopaz, be cardę všpąda. sarding wopąze. aufe vopądó. saupt všpaz”.

born (64). **T hahar, to not hahar to hahara **f hahạri va hahară, marry off (a (rare).

(rare). girl) (76).

rūzu.

or हरण

haract

haraçě.

or हरथ्य

4 (b). THE PAST TENSE. This tense is peculiar to the first and second conjugations. It does not occur in the third conjugation. It describes something which has happened lately, e.g., *rą karun, he has (just) made.

It is formed from the Past Participle in Ę *' This Participle is Passive in the case of verbs of the first conjugation. Thus, kara, done, बसु Qusar (impersonal verb), laughed. It is Nenter in the case of verbs of the second conjugation. Thus, a bộve, become. Verbs of the first conjugation are therefore passive in construction. Instead of saying 'I made this,' we must say 'this was made by me,' Pa* yih karu, this (yih) by me (mě) made (kar«). Here the original object of the sentence has become the grammatical subject, and the logical subject has been put into the case of the agent. If the object (grammatical subject) is feminine, the participle must be feminine. If it is plural, the participle must be plural. Thus,

HTa mę karu mě karu, the bracelet (masc.) was made by me. 4 patkart, the tablet (fem.) was made by me. aft 2 afr kară mě kars, the bracelets were made by me.

qe nei pacě karě, the tablets were made by me. As regards the original subject, it is put in the agent case, and may also be added to the verb in the form of a pronominal suffix of the agent case. This must always be done in the second person singular and plural. These suffixes are given on pp. 15 and ff. For the sake of ready reference, they are here repeated.

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The initial ga is elided when following a vowel. When the pronominal suffix is added to a verb (it is always added in the case of the second person), the original subject (now agent), if a pronoun, may be omitted. Thus, for' he made,' we may say,

(a) of me tạmi kara, by him made,
or (6) Ha min tami karu-n, by him made-by-him,

or (c) *Ta kæru-n, made-by-him. In the second person we cannot use the first or (a) form. We can only say,

(6) pa tač karu-th, by thee made-by-thee,

or (c) arų karu-th, made-by-thee. So in the plural.

(6) maqa to kąra-we, by you made-by-you,

or (c) TT karu.wa, made-by-you. We cannot say at tsẽ karu or me the tờhě kar.

This Passive construction is called in Sanskrit Grammar the kar. mani prayoga, and is described in Isvara-kaula's Grammar under that name (viii, iii, 3).

THE IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION. Impersonal verbs are used passively with all persons. The terminations are the same as in the case of active verbs. An example is,

(a) of 4 tạmi asa, by him it was laughed, or (6) #fH day tạmi asu-n, by him it was laughed-by-him,

or (c) asu-n, it was laughed-by-bim, all three of which mean "he laughed' (viii. iii. 3). So 4 asu-m, I laughed.

The two verbs get tsuv, quarrel, and to morav, bear pain, may be used impersonally, and are then put in the feminine (viii. iii. 9).

Thus, tsuven, quarrelling was done-by-him, he quarrelled, the verb agreeing with the nominative FF har, a quarrel, which is feminine. So witaa mõrquøn, pain was suffered-by-bim, he suffered pain, the true nominative being some femivine word like ate pid, pain, understood.

In these cases we may use all the three forms, except, as before, in the second person. Thus,

(a) aifu ya tạmi teuva,
or (6) sifat tạmi tsuven,
or (c) ponts uvan.

These two words can even be used in the fem. plur. Thus, ya, he quarrelled (many times); #ta mõravyan, he suffered pains.

The following verbs (repeated from pp. 16 and 22) are also imper. sonal but have this peculiarity that they are conjugated with suffixes of the dative instead of suffixes of the agent, and are also in the feminine.

9 tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
Fu phos,
, ditto.

ditto.

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ditto. T9 wuts, be burnt. foy phits, forget.

pia tyamb, look eagerly (conjugated in the third conjugation). Thus, hogy te art.s, not inteqrt-n, there was inward anger to him,

he was angry
frey teart.y, not your tsart-th, thou wast angry.

from tsart-m, I was angry.
So

बुङ्ग्य wutsøy, thou wast burnt. These verbs are given here, because the first six are used in the Past Tense. Riy tyamb, look en gerly, belongs to the third conjugation, and does not use the Past Tense.

This impersonal construction, whether with the Dative or with the Agent, is called in Sanskrit, the bhāve-prayoga.

NEUTER VERBS.

Neuter verbs of the second conjugation, having their Past Participle nenter, are conjugated, in the Past tenses actively. They thus take the pronominal suffixes of the nominative, and agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. The addition of the pronominal suffixes is obligatory. They are here quoted for ready reference. SINGULAR.

PLURAL

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2.

ve akh.

9 Qw.

3. There are no nominative suffixes of the first person plural or of the

third person.

J. 1. 7

Taking, therefore, the verb xa bờv, become, for 'I became' we may say, —

(6) Ngę böh bộvu-s,

or (c) fgy bộvu-s. We cannot say bõh bờuw, any more than we can say aut tõhe karu.

These preliminaries being understood, I shall, in the paradigms, only give the (c) forms of the past tenses. From these the (6) forms and (when they exist) the (a) forms can easily be deduced.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.

(a) Transitive Verb (viii. iii. 3–9) (c. forms only) ‘I made,' Lit. 'he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, bim, us, &c.'

6

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Sing.

1 Hay karu-m. tipa kart-m. afrų kari-m. gerą karya-m.: 2 *4 karu-th.my kąrd-th. #fcą kari-th. eią karya-th. antrą karu-n. tipa kark-n.

afrą kari-n.

karya-n.

3

Plur.

i kar.

kara
.
करि kar'.

a karo. 2 #qa karr-we. Hva kart.wa. *fta kari-we. a karč-20. 3 ara karu-kh. mun karä-kh. afce kari-kh. merą karya-kh.

Verbs ending in vowels are slightly irregular in the masculine singular and plural, and in the feminine singular, which latter is the

| E.g. The object of the sentence, which has now become the grammatical subject, as explained above.

% Or karš.m, and so throughont.

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