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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.
Part I.-HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c.
On the Kaçmiri Verb.-By G. A. GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., I.C S. [Read January, 1899.]
The Kāçmiri Verb is treated in the Akhyāta- and Krdanta-prakriyas of Içvara-kaula's Kaçmiraçabdāmṛta.
Verbal roots may end either in a consonant or in a vowel. When a root ends in a consonant, the vowel a is added to assist the pronunciation. Thus the root kar is written kara. It is still, however, considered to be a root ending in a consonant and is referred to as such. The final a is dropped before adding the conjugational suffixes. For this reason, throughout this series of papers, I shall so far depart from the rule of strict transliteration, that I shall not write the final a of roots ending in consonants, although that final a will be written in the Nagari character.
When a root ends in a vowel, that vowel is always i. There are only eight of these roots, of which five belong to the first, and three to the third conjugation, as follows,
First Conjugation. -f khi, eat; fa ci, drink; fa di, give; fa ni, take; and fhi, take.
Third Conjugation. -f zi, be born; fu pi, fall; and fɛ yi, come
As in the above examples, all verbs will be quoted under their root-forms.
Excepting the verbs fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fa yi, come, all verbs whose roots end in vowels change the final i to ч ya(ě) throughout (viii. ii. 11). Thus, the present participle of all these verbs is made by adding a wān to the root. But the present participle of f khi, eat, is 17 khyawān, not faa khiwan. On the other hand, the present participle of fa ni, take, is fala niwan, not nyawan. This rule is a most important one, and will be met over and over again in the following pages.
There are three conjugations of verbs. They only differ in the formation of the Causal Voice, and of the past participles and of the tenses derived from them. Their consideration is postponed till these tenses come to be dealt with.
There are three voices: the Active, the Passive, and the Causal.
THE ACTIVE VOICE.
This is formed by adding the conjugational suffixes to the root direct according to the rules to be hereafter detailed.
THE PASSIVE VOICE.
ana, with the
This is formed by conjugating the oblique form of the verbal noun in un, that is to say, the shortened form of the Instrumental Singular which is used before post-positions, and which ends in verb f yi, come, which may either precede or follow. the verb kar, make, the verbal noun is karun. form of this is karan, and the Passive is a fa karanɑ yi, be made, literally, come into making. Compare the Hindi à tar fe dēkh'nē mē ātā hai, it comes into seeing, it is seen (viii. i. 49). Examples of the use of the Passive are (viii. i. 50).
रनन यिवान् बुद्द् बत ranane jivān chuh bate, the rice is coming into cooking, i.e., is being cooked.
aag gefaang pana-y chuh yiwān karan, he, himself, is
Even neuter verbs can take the passive form, without, in this case, changing their meaning (viii. i. 51).
जोतान् बुद्द zūtān chuh ; or
ha fazōtana yiwān chuh, he is shining. The latter example is literally, he is coming into shining.
E dazān chuh, or
दज़न fadazana yiwān chuh, he is burning.
The root a bōz, hear, when used in the passive means 'see (viii. i. 52). Thus,
diga faaıq ▼▼ bōzan" yiwăn chuh, he is being seen.
ga bōzano āv (āv, is the irregular past tense of yi), he
If we want to express the passive of the verb 'to hear,' we must use a periphrasis. Thus,
बोज़नस् चन्दर् यिवान् कुछ bözanas andar yiwān chuh, he is coming into hearing, he is being heard.
gar, work metal, may mean to become hard' in the Passive (viii. i. 53). Thus,
fa garana yiwan chuh, it is being worked, or it is becoming hard.
The root fani, take, may mean 'to have the attention distracted' in the Passive (viii. i. 55). Thus,
faa faana nino yiwan chuh, he is being distracted, or he is being taken.
The root fhi, take, may mean 'to be engaged in' in the Passive (viii, i. 56). Thus, farahyana yiwan chuh, he is engaged (in a business), or he is being taken.
The root des, see, is irregular. Its Passive is formed thus, a faqja e drễth yiwãn chuh, he is being seen (viii. i. 54).
In adding this termination
an, we must remember that in the
case of the verbs fa ni, take, fa di, give, fa yi, come, the first a is
elided (viii. ii. 11).
Thus, faa faaia ▼▼ nine yiwan chuh, he is being
दिन यिवान् कुछ dina yican chuh, he is being given.
yin yiwan chuh, it is being come by him, i.e., he is
coming. In the case of other verbs ending ini, that vowel becomes
fa khi, eat, a faaa khyana yiwān chuh, he is being eaten,
tense, करान् बुद्ध् karān chuh, he makes; करनावान् छुच् karanāwān chuh,
he causes to make.
wuph, fly, is regular. Thus, IA FE wuphanāwān chuh, he causes to fly. But when the causal verb means to incite,' the n is changed to l (viii. iv. 4). Thus, guera
chuh, he incites.
Intransitive roots containing three akṣaras omit the an of anaw in forming causals (viii. iv. 7). Thus,
samakh, become visible. IIII CE samakhāwān chuh, he
wopaz, be born.
wopazāwān chuh, he
This exception does not apply to transitive verbs, which are regular.
The verbs wuz, be awake; bod, dive;
ranz, be pleased, add
fu pil, arrive; at kamp, tremble, and optionally av, instead of a anāv (viii. iv. 5, 14). Thus, gana ◄ wuzawẫn chu-s, or gaatana ye wuzanāwān chu-s, he wakens him. So का॑म्पवान् ब॒स् keāmpawän chu-s, or कोम्पनावान् कुस् kāmpanāwān chu-s, he causes him to tremble. The root pras, be born, has three forms (viii. iv. 5, 15) ; viz. प्रसवान् कुड् prasawān chuth; प्रसनावान् कुड् prasanāvān chuh, and pinawẫn chuh, he causes to bear children.
he causes to bring.
phat, be split, makes its causal anaphāṭawān
phāṭanawăn chuh (viii. iv. 17).