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व्वपन wöpaz, bo व्वष॑द् wöpal". ब्वप॑ज़ू wöpg24. व्वप॑दि wöpgdi. व्यपज़ toöpaza. born (64).
hahar, to haharuhahar” | ◄◄f、 hahạri◄◄ haharě,
4 (b). THE PAST TENSE.
This tense is peculiar to the first and second conjugations. It does not occur in the third conjugation. It describes something which has happened lately, e.g., karun, he has (just) made.
It is formed from the Past Participle in". This Participle is Passive in the case of verbs of the first conjugation. Thus, karu, done, as (impersonal verb), laughed. It is Neuter in the case of verbs of the second conjugation. Thus, bou, become. Verbs of the first conjugation are therefore passive in construction. Instead of saying 'I made this,' we must say 'this was made by me,' ◄ ₪ yih mě karu, this (yih) by me (mě) made (kar”). Here the original object of the sentence has become the grammatical subject, and the logical subject has been put into the case of the agent. If the object (grammatical subject) is feminine, the participle must be feminine. If it is plural, the participle must be plural. Thus,
đa đi được kạn mê kar, the bracelet (mase.) was made by me.
dz ➡ ➡ẹ pata mě kara, the tablet (fem.) was made by me.
afc æ afc kạri mẽ kari, the bracelets were made by me.
◄ ♫ à pacě mě karě, the tablets were made by me.
As regards the original subject, it is put in the agent case, and may also be added to the verb in the form of a pronominal suffix of the agent case. This must always be done in the second person singular and plural. These suffixes are given on pp. 15 and ff. For the sake of ready reference, they are here repeated.
The initiala is elided when following a vowel.
When the pronominal suffix is added to a verb (it is always added in the case of the second person), the original subject (now agent), if a pronoun, may be omitted. Thus, for he made,' we may say,—
(a) af◄ ◄◄ tạmi karu, by him made,
or (b) dfa da tạmi karu-n, by him made-by-him,
In the second person we cannot use the first or (a) form. We can
(b) ◄ ◄◄a tsẽ kạru-th, by thee made-by-thee,
So in the plural.
(b) aga tõhě kạr-wa, by you made-by-you,
or (c) ◄◄◄ karu.wa, made-by-you.
We cannot say च्य कर tse kare or त्वच्च के tohe kare.
This Passive construction is called in Sanskrit Grammar the karmani prayōga, and is described in Içvara-kaula's Grammar under that name (viii. iii, 3).
THE IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCtion.
Impersonal verbs are used passively with all persons. The terminations are the same as in the case of active verbs. An example is,— (a) Af¤ ◄☎ tạmi as", by him it was laughed,
or (b) af
tami asu-n, by him it was laughed-by-him, asu-n, it was laughed-by-him,
all three of which mean 'he laughed' (viii. iii. 3). So asu-m, I laughed.
The two verbs
tsuv, quarrel, and mōrav, bear pain, may be used impersonally, and are then put in the feminine (viii. iii. 9).
Thus, ga tsuvễn, quarrelling was done-by-him, he quarrelled, the verb agreeing with the nominative har, a quarrel, which is feminine. So a mōrav3n, pain was suffered-by-him, he suffered pain, the true nominative being some feminine word like pid, pain,
In these cases we may use all the three forms, except, as before, in the second person. Thus,
These two words can even be used in the fem. plur. Thus, a, he quarrelled (many times); aq mōravyan, he suffered pains.
The following verbs (repeated from pp. 16 and 22) are also impersonal but have this peculiarity that they are conjugated with suffixes of the dative instead of suffixes of the agent, and are also in the feminine. tear, be inwardly wrathful.
tyamb, look eagerly (conjugated in the third conjugation).
Thus, tsart-s, not
he was angry.
tear-n, there was inward anger to him,
tear-th, thou wast angry.
◄ tsar"-m, I was angry.
So wutsy, thou wast burnt. These verbs are given here, gu? because the first six are used in the Past Tense. i tyamb, look eagerly, belongs to the third conjugation, and does not use the Past Tense.
This impersonal construction, whether with the Dative or with the Agent, is called in Sanskrit, the bhāvē-prayōga.
Neuter verbs of the second conjugation, having their Past Participle neuter, are conjugated, in the Past tenses actively. They thus take the pronominal suffixes of the nominative, and agree with the subject of the sentence in number and person. The addition of the pronominal suffixes is obligatory.
They are here quoted for ready reference.
There are no nominative suffixes of the first person plural or of the third person.
J. 1. 7
Taking, therefore, the verb bov, become, for 'I became' we may
These preliminaries being understood, I shall, in the paradigms, only give the (c) forms of the past tenses. From these the (b) forms and (when they exist) the (a) forms can easily be deduced.
A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
(a) Transitive Verb (viii. iii. 3-9) (c. forms only) 'I made,' Lit. 'he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, him, us, &c.'
3 कंरुख haru-kh. करूख् lgra-kh. करि kari-kh. कर्यं karya-kh.
Verbs ending in vowels are slightly irregular in the masculine singular and plural, and in the feminine singular, which latter is the
1 E.g. The object of the sentence, which has now become the grammatical subject, as explained above.
Or karě-m, and so throughout.