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النشر الإلكتروني

From **ų karu-kh, made by them, they made.

Tvę karw_h-as, they made me (or they made for him).
HITT karu.h-akh, they made thee (or for them).
(seva kar-.h-an, they made him, is not used. We say,

Baru suh karu-kh].
fra kari-h-awa, they made you.
[aftrą kari-h-akh, they made them, is not used. We say,

fay afiu tim kari-kh. aftræ kari-h-akh, means 'he

made them for them ']. There being no suffix for the first person plural, there are no special forms for thou, he, you, or they made us.

With regard to all these forms, the full forms of the pronouns may also be used, with, or without the suffixes. Thus, We may say either (a) THE mě kąra-m-akh tson, by me was-made-by

me-thon thou, or (6) THE TR kar®-m-akh tsen, was-made-by-me-thou thou, or (c) *Tay mě karu-m-akh, by me was-made-by-me-thon, or (d) The kæræmakh, was-made-by-me-thou, or (e) To mě kæru-kh tsoh, by me was-made-thou thou, or

(f) mary mě kąru-kh, by me was-made-thon. We cannot, however, use the two following forms.

(g) na mě karu tsen, by-me was made thon or

(h) ay i køru-m teoh, was-made-by-me thou. In other words when the full form of the pronoun in the nominative is used, the corresponding suffix must always accompany it.

Other pronominal suffixes can similarly be used. Thus, the karw.m-ay, I made for thee.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter Verb (viii. iii. 77-97). (c. Forms only).

I became, &c.

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The verb HT mar, die, has its past tense irregular. It is thus conjugated (viii. iii. 26, 31, 59, 65, 92).

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सूदुर madu-kh. | म्बयप māya-kh. | मूदिव mudi-10. | म्वयव mdyo.un.

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When At mar means to unite, it is regular. Thus, ATT marun, he united him.

5 (a.) THE VERBAL AORIST PARTICIPLE. This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first and second (viii. iii. 78) conjugations it is a true aorist. It expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. E.g., wafa karyov, he (was) made (by us), we made; wanita bovyov, he became. It is therefore the participle, and the aorist is the tense, of narration in these two conjugations.

J. 1. 8

In the third conjugation, it is used instead of the past participle ; and describes something which has happened lately. Thus, gwa wuphyov, he flew (a short time ago).

This participle is formed in the first and second conjugations by changing the final y ya (ě) of the feminine plural of the past participle to ota yðv. Thus, *t kar, do ; past participle *ę karu, fem. plur. ei karě; aorist participle agtą kuryðv.

In those cases, in which the feminine plural ends in & a, instead of in 4 ya (ě), (see p. 42) the aorist participle ends in ga õv, not in za you. Thus, 29 daz, burn; past participle * dạd", fem. plur. 9 daze ; aorist participle ona dazov. There are four exceptions (viii. iii. 49, 81). The aorist participle of my kets, be moist, is at kotsyöv; that of my vyats, pervade, is eina vyatsyöv; that of thg rots, be preferred, data rūtsyov ; (and that of a wuts, be burnt, gona wutsyöv]. Note that in the fem. pl. Past, in these verbs, the a y is elided. Thus og kotso, not mer ketsě; 2199 vyatse, note vya tsē; Te rotse not to rotsě (viii. iii. 49, 81).

In the third conjugation, the aorist participle is formed by adding a yov to the root direct. Thus, gu wuph, fly, aorist participle gusta wuphyov, but there are exceptions which will be dealt with later on.

Içvara-kaula spells this participle indifferently with ota yov or with ata yauv. Both are pronounced the same, like ota yov (viii. iü. 39).

[The true termination of this participle is yo, the v, as well as the y of the plural to be noted later, are only added for the sake of euphony).

Special Rules for the First and Second Conjugations. The base of the aorist participle of the first and second conjugations being the same as the feminine plural of the past participle, the final consonant of the verbal root undergoes certain changes (viii. iii. 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75). For the same reason, in the aorist participle, the vowel of the verbal root remains unchanged (see page 41). The following are examples of the changes. The reader is referred to pp. 42 and ff. for details.

Root on thak, be tired, aorist participle us thacyov.
2
lēkh, write

hala lēchyov.
3 To dag, pound

eta dajyo.

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4 Root uz phat, be split aorist participle a phacyov.
5
HC math, forget

मधो machyāv.
6
jis gand, bind

गच्चोव ganjyor.
7
kat, spin

कजीव katsov.
8
apo woth, arise

pia wõtshov.
9
pe lad, build

wana lazov.
10
To ran, cook

Twita ranov, .
11
tsal, flee

a tsajyor.
12 for pih, grind

fuma piçyov.
13
muh, deceive

gwe muçyov.*
14
of sah, bear

Fra saçyov. .
15
* goh, grind

ama geçyou.
16 9t8h, suck

Twita tsofyov. Nos. 7-10 are also examples of the elision of 7 y. The following are further examples, see p. 42 for details.

1 Root fę di, give aorist participle fama ditsov.
2 fe hi, take

a hětsov.
The past participles of these two verbs are irregular, vide p. 45.

3 Root 7 daz, burn, aorist participle a dazov.
4
Te bas, dwell

बसोव basdv.
5 e kas, fry

कसो kasov.
But from, -
6 Root ole thās, bury

aga thāsov, or greja

thäsyov.
7
e das, beat

दसोव dasiv, or दस्योव

dasyov. .
And from
8 Root 49 kots, be wet

only ana kotsyov (p. 58). 9

8 tsas, laugh loudly only rena tsasyov (p. 42). Remember that all these changes occur only in the first and second conjugations. The rules for the third conjugation are quite different.

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* My Pandit prefers a muhyov.

Special Rules for the Third Conjugation. In this conjugation, the participle (and consequently, the tense forned from it) is not used as an aorist, but as a past; with the same meaning as the past participle of the first and second conjugations. It is not the tense of narration.

The aorist participle is formed by adding to you to the root. Thus, yr wuph, fly, guta wuphyov. Befi re this the final consonant of a root is not liable to change, as it is in the case of verbs of the first and second conjugations. Thus, from sta zēth, be long, a verb of the 3rd conjugation, the aorist participle is goia zēthyov, and not starta sēchyov, as it would be, if the verb belonged to the 2nd conjugation.

Note also that in this conjugation, ? y is not elided after ts, Į tsh, 72, or a ñ (viii. iii. 49). Içvara-kaula in this sūtra gives the following list of verbs, which do not elide q y. It includes many of the verbs ending in these letters which belong to the third conjugation.

99 grðts, be splashed out; y trots, have insufficient means of livelihood ; & tshots, be empty; ay tēz, be sharp; 497 paz, be fit; 197 braz, shine; alam bāwaz, be preferred ; 29 lěts, be weak; y grūts, be pure. Thus, gana grotsyõv, not yet grotsõv.

The other verbs belonging to the third conjugation, which end in these letters, and which are not mentioned by Içvara-kaula in the above sūtra are the following:

99 ats, enter; 79 trats, fear; 569 mots, remain over and above ; qe atah, be weak; te gatsh, go; nos palaz, be useful; Tu ranz, be pléased; y laz, be suitable; TT wuz, be wide awake, appear. 999 sapaz, become, is considered the same as tua sapan, or yu sapad, and belongs to the second conjugation. According to my Pandit rom palaz, above recorded, belongs to the second conjugation. According to my Paņdit, of these, y trats and up atsh, always

The others retain it optionally except 99 ats and an gate h, which are irregular. See below, pp. 64 and 65.

Moreover, qy is not, in this conjugation, elided after & s. All the examples of the elision of I y after this letter given by Içvara-kaula belong either to the first or second conjugation.

retain य .

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