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to the 2nd conjugation); wrę bād, be powerful; are bās, become clear (according to my Paņdit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation);

bud, be old : ag braz, shine ; on yāp, pervade ; ta ramb, be beautiful; te ras, be full of juice; to rots, be preferred; te rōļ, be stopped ; F red, persistently follow; ren, be worn out; 5 lyad, be conquered; it lor, become deficient. Thus, aga rata y ketsanāwān chuh, not ara katsarāwān chuh.

All causal verbs in Grāw, may optionally drop the syllable āw in the termination, and add an instead of brāw (viii. iv. 24). Thus,Instead of

We may haveterraza y kalerāvān chuh Retra y kąlerān chuh खबावान् कुह gderāvān chuh खबरान् कुर gbran chuh

varama ya tsokorāxãn chuh sacra tsộkerãn chuh and so on.

The following verbs form their causals by merely lengthening their root vowels (viii. iv. 28).

at tar, be crossed. Causal arcia y tārān chuh, he crosses.
HT mur, die.

ATTIT T mārān chuh, he kills.
e dal, pass over.

gta dālān chuh, he causes to

pass over. ad lag, be with

rara T lāgān chuh, he unites. When #7 mar (18, 28), means 'unite,' and when I lag (28) means "suffer pain,' or 'fit,' they are regular. Thus, Araraq maranāwān chuh, he causes to unite ; a1919 5 laganāwān chuh, he causes to suffer pain.

The following are quite irregular,
for zi, be born. Causal patía y zāvarān chuh, he brings

forth (26).
ag khas, ascend.

artia khārān chuh, he causes to

ascend (29). 98 vas, descend.

antra T wārān chuh, he brings down

(29). J. 1. 2

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Verbal Suffixes. Before proceeding to the consideration of the conjugation of the verb, it is necessary to describe in detail one remarkable feature of the Kāçmirī language, which it shares with other languages of the NorthWestern group of the Indo-Aryan Vernaculars, namely, the facility with which the meaning of the verbal stem can be modified by the addition of suffixes. Indeed, it may be said that, given the form of a tense-stem, there is usually no conjugation, in the proper sense of the word, at all. In most cases, suffixes, which may be added, or detached, at pleasure, and most of which have an independent recognised existence, are added, and give the various modifications of meaning which we designate number and person, or of negation, affirmation, and so on, by forming true compound words, and without becoming merged in the base in the form of terminations. Thus, take the word aç kara. This means 'made,' and may mean, 'made by me,''made by us,' 'made by him and so on. That is to say, it means, “I made,'' we made," he made,' &c. If we wish to lay stress on the person who made, we may say af# tạmi karz, by him made,' i.e., he made. Instead, however of using af# tạmi, the instrumental singular of the third

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