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النشر الإلكتروني

5 (6). THE AORIST TENSE. This is formed from the Aorist Participle, exactly as the Past tense is formed from the Past Participle, except that a final av or a final qy is always elided before a pronominal suffix (viii. iii. 41). Thus, mata karyov + 4 am, made-by-me=mafą karyo-m, not matau karyõv-am. The e a of 94 am, is elided under the general rules for pronominal suffixes (vide p. 15). So also forms like ghaly kumalyō-s (kumalyov + as), he was tender for him ; ghee kumalyê-s, they were tender for him. We thus get the following forms,

A. FIRST CONJUGATION. (a). Transitive verb (viii. iii. 14). (c. forms only). 'I made,' lit. 'he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, him,

us, &c.'

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कर्याम् karry-m. | कर्येयम् karysya-m. कर्यम् karye-m.

कर्येयम् karyĒya-m.

2

कर्याथ् karyo-th. | कर्येयथ् karyeya-th. कर्येय् karye-th.

कर्येयथ् kary?ya-th.

3

कर्यान् karyo-n. | कर्येयन् karyeya-n. | कर्येन् karye-n. .

कर्ययन kary@ya-n.

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कर्येय karyzys.

2

ang fa karya-we. aega kary@yo-wanita karyő-we.

कर्येयव karyeye-we

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As regards verbs ending in vowels, the usual rule is followed Thus, from fa khi, eat, the aorist participle is esta khěyov ; and from fe ci, drink, gia cěyov.

From for ni, take, we get, as usual facenta niyāv, not apna něyov. fe di, give and fe hi, take, are, as in the Past, irregular. Of fę di, the Aorist Participle is festa ditsūv (pl. fçulą ditsạy ; fem. Festa ditsay®), and of fe hi, ta hětsūv (pl. hětsay; fem. hětsaya) (viii. iii. 32). See p. 61.

Double pronominal suffixes can be added, as in the case of the Past. Thus, fug karyo-th-as, thou madest me; mathe karyő-m-ay, I made for thee; atap karyo-m-as, I made for him. Other examples are unnecessary. The rules are exactly the same as in the case of the past tense. Vide, however, special cases mentioned after the Paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 70).

(6). Impersonal verb (viii. iii. 14). (c. forms only).

'I laughed,' lit. it was laughed by me,' &c. Singular 1 gay aső-m, I laughed.

2 qoy aső-th, thou laughedst.

3 gota asm-n, he laughed. Plural l qota asov, we laughed.

2 489 aső-we, you laughed.

3 991aső-kh, they laughed. When an impersonal verb is conjugated in the feminine (see pp. 22 and 48) we get

SINGULAR AND PLURAL.
Singular 1 yžay tsuvy@ya-m, I quarrelled.

2 garera tsuvyĒya-th, thou didst quarrel.

3 guara tsuvy@ya-n, he quarrelled.
Plural 1 gaia tsuvy@y, we quarrelled.

2 gaan tsuvyềye-we, you quarrelled.
3 gian tsuvy@ya-kh, they quarrelled.

The feminine impersonal verbs tsar, &c., (see pp. 16, 22 and 49) have the following forms,

propery tsary@ya-m, I was inwardly wrathful.
gift tsary@yi-y (with inserted i; see p. 70 post), thou wast

inwardly angry.
piere tsary@ya-s, he was inwardly angry.

And so on. So also (viii, iii. 45) may tyamby@ya-s (3rd conj.), he glanced eagerly.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 39). (c. forms only).

'I became, &c.'

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बुगोस् bvyo-s. बव्येयस् bāvyaya-s. वृव्येय b>vysy. व्येय bovyeyi. qara bovyő-kh. aiz bövyễya. bövyē-we. qua bòvyēze.

2

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Neuter verb g4 wuph, fly (viii. iii. 39). (c. forms only).

• I flew (just now),' used in the sense of the Past, and not as the tense of the Aorist.

1st Sing. Masc. gut wuphyo-s, &c., exactly as in the second conjugation.

In this tense, the difference between the second and third conjugations consists in the formation of the Aorist Participle, as already explained, and not in the conjugation.

1 Içvara-kaula (viii. iii. 44) gives a bovyėwa, bat my Papļit says this is a mistake. The form given above is the correct one.

The Aorist of fu pi, fall, used in the sense of the Past, is (viii. iii. 48, 60, 61),

'I fell, &c.'

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Note the specially irregular 2nd person plur. masc.

The Aorist of verb u gatsh, go, used in the sense of the past, is (viii. iii. 48, 58, 60, 61).

'I went, &c.'

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When this verb is used in the meaning of 'be proper,' it is regular, and belongs to the 2nd conjugation. Thus, die gatsh", it was proper (viii. iii. 58). In this sense it is only used in the Past. The Aorist and Pluperfect do not occur (82).

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There are also other irregular Aorists of this conjugation. There are those of the roots for yi, come ; fe zi, be born; är nēr, go forth ; 9 ats; enter; 98 pras, be born. The Aorist Participles, in the sense of the Past will be found in the list of irregular Aorist Participles, and no difficulty will be found in conjugating them. They are here given for ready reference.

AORIST PARTICIPLES.

fy yi, come.
for zi, be born.
ar nēr, issue.

era āv. 51% zāv. 510 drāv.

ats, enter.

चाव tsav. 99 pras, be born.

Ota pyāv. The feminine and masculine plurals are given in the list of Aorist Participles. It will be seen that they must be conjugated as if they were Pluperfects. Vide p. 74.

बुझ्यय

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When the suffix of the dative of the second person singular is added to a form ending in ga õv, et ū becomes a wą (o) (viii. iii. 43). Thus, aata karyov +97 ay, i karyoy,' we made for thee. wuphyộy,' he flew for thee. sta gauv (root na gatsh), he went; salar goy, he went for thee. oita pyauv, he fell; y pyöy, he fell for thee. The plural of sa gauv, is ay gay, and they went for thee' is the gay. So, 'they fell for thee' is a pyay.

[When the same forma ay is added to a form in of yo, Ti is inserted. Thus, mala kary@ya, she was made by us; morfere karyễyi-y, she was made by us for thee. Compare ofera tsary@yi-y on p. 68 ante).

1 These are the forms according to the Sūtra. Bat my Pandit maintains that the true forms are wafa karyő-y, and ganz wuphyo-y. The exceptional forms, he says, only occur in the case of the verbs Je gatsh, go, and fo pi, fall. The Sūtra while making the rule absolutely general, only gives the two last-named verbs as examples.

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