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5 (6). THE AORIST Tense. This is formed from the Aorist Participle, exactly as the Past tense is formed from the Past Participle, except that a final a v or a final ay is always elided before a pronominal suffix (viii. iii. 41). Thus, mafą karyov + 4 am, made-by-me=hty karyō-m, not atau karyõv-am. The aa of qy am, is elided under the general rules for pronominal suffixes (vide p. 15). So also forms like gamle kumalyā-8 (kumalyov + as), he was tender for him; ghee kumalyē-s, they were tender for him. We thus get the following forms,

A. First CONJUGATION. (a). Transitive verb (viii. iii. 14). (c. forms only). "I made, lit. ‘he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, him,

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As regards verbs ending in vowels, the usual rule is followed Thus, from fe khi, eat, the aorist participle is egeta khěyõv; and from fe ci, drink, pia cěyov.

From fa ni, take, we get, as usual foreta niyāv, not aperia něyov. fe di, give and fx hi, take, are, as in the Past, irregular. Of fe di, the Aorist Participle is festa ditsõv (pl. feytą ditsāy; fem. futa ditsaye), and of fe hi, eta hětsov (pl. vita hětsāy; fem. cela hětsāyo) (viii. iii. 32). See p. 61.

Double pronominal suffixes can be added, as in the case of the Past. Thus, wafug karyo-th-as, thou madest me; metrą karyo-m-ay, I made for thee; apatay karyo-m-as, I made for him. Other examples are unnecessary. The rules are exactly the same as in the case of the past tense. Vide, however, special cases mentioned after the Paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 70).

(b). Impersonal verb (viii. iii. 14). (c. forms only).

'I laughed,' lit. 'it was laughed by me,' &c. Singular 1 g H ash-m, I laughed.

2 q ų aső-th, thou laughedst.

3 gota aső-n, he laughed. Plural 1 gota asov, we laughed.

2 gala aső-we, you laughed.

3 outę asō-kh, they laughed. When an impersonal verb is conjugated in the feminine (see pp. 22 and 48) we get

SINGULAR AND PLURAL.
Singular 1 gay tsuvy@ya-m, I quarrelled.

2 patera tsuvy@ya-th, thou didst quarrel.

3 quiera tsuvy@ya-n, he quarrelled.
Plural 1 ay tsuvyễyo, we quarrelled.

2 gaga tsuvyễye-w8, you quarrelled.
3 gagę tsuvy@ya-kh, they quarrelled.

The feminine impersonal verbs r tsar, &c., (see pp. 16, 22 and 49) have the following forms,

teru tsary@ya-m, I was inwardly wrathful.
ifra tsaryĒyi-y (with inserted i; see p. 70 post), thou wast

inwardly angry.
pie tsaryĒya-s, he was inwardly angry.

And so on. So also (viii, iii. 45) njang tyamby@ya-s (3rd conj.), he glanced eagerly.

B. Second CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 39). (c. forms only).

“I became, &c.'

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C. THIRD CONJUGATION. Neuter verb g4 wuph, fly (viii. iii. 39). (c. forms only). 'I flew (just now),' used in the sense of the Past, and not as the tense of the Aorist.

lst Sing. Masc. gute wuphyo-s, &c., exactly as in the second conjugation.

In this tense, the difference between the second and third conjugations consists in the formation of the Aorist Participle, as already explained, and not in the conjugation.

1 Içvara-kaula (viii. iii. 44) gives a bovyėwa, bat my Pandit says this is a mistake. The form given above is the correct one.

The Aorist of fu pi, fall, used in the sense of the Past, is (viii. iii. 48, 60, 61),

'I fell, &c.

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Note the specially irregular 2nd person plur. masc.

The Aorist of verb e gatsh, go, used in the sense of the past, is (viii. iii. 48, 58, 60, 61).

'I went, &c.'

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When this verb is used in the meaning of 'be proper,' it is regular, and belongs to the 2nd conjugation. Thus, jig gatshu, it was proper (viii. iii. 58). In this sense it is only used in the Past. The Aorist and Pluperfect do not occur (82).

There are also other irregular Aorists of this conjugation. There are those of the roots for yi, come ; fe zi, be born ; àt nēr, go forth ; 4 ats; enter ; 78 pras, be born. The Aorist Participles, in the sense of the Past will be found in the list of irregular Aorist Participles, and no difficulty will be found in conjugating them. They are here given for ready reference.

AORIST PARTICIPLES. for yi, come.

919 āv. for zi, be born.

14 zāv. at nēr, issue. 319 drāv. 99 ats, enter.

yra tsāv. 98 pras, be born. 0114 pyāv. The feminine and masculine plurals are given in the list of Aorist Participles. It will be seen that they must be conjugated as if they were Pluperfects. Vide p. 74.

When the suffix of the dative of the second person singular is added to a form ending in ga ov, a ū becomes a (ö) (viii. iii. 43). Thus, कोव karyov+ पय् ay, कर्यय् karyy, we made for thee. वुझ्यय wuphyðy,' he flew for thee. ta gauv (root we gatsh), he went; sala goy, he went for thee. ota pyauv, he fell; go pyoy, he fell for thee. The plural of ina gauv, is ra gay, and they went for thee' is no gay. So, 'they fell for thee' is wa vyay.

[When the same form oq ay is added to a form in y yo, q i is inserted. Thus, apparet karyĒya, she was made by us; perforat karyĒyi-y, she was made by us for thee. Compare ofera tsary@yi-y on p. 68 ante).

i These are the forms according to the Sūtra. Bat my Pandit maintains that the trae forms are apata karyő-y, and guila wuphyo-y. The exceptional forms, he says, only occur in the case of the verbs Je gatsh, go, and fo pi, fall. The Sūtra while making the rule absolutely general, only gives the two last-named verbs as examples.

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