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النشر الإلكتروني

5 (6). TAE AORIST TENSE. This is formed from the Aorist Participle, exactly as the Past tense is formed from the Past Participle, except that a final av or a final ay is always elided before a pronominal suffix (viii. iii. 41). Thus, rafa karyov + am, made-by-me=afų karyo-m, not fuq karyõv-am. The q a of qy am, is elided under the general rules for pronominal suffixes (vide p. 15). So also forms like gially kumalyō-s (kumalyov + as), he was tender for him; goeie kumalyê-s, they were tender for him. We thus get the following forms,

A. First CONJUGATION. (a). Transitive verb (viii. iii. 14). (c. forms only). 'I made,' lit. 'he, she, it, &c., was (were) made by me, you, him,

us, &c.'

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1

कर्याम् karyo-m. | कर्येयम् karjeya-m. | कर्यम् karrys.m.

कर्येयम् karyēya-m.

2

कर्याथ् karyo-th. | कर्येयथ् karyaya-th. कर्येय् karye-th.

कर्येयथ्

karyĒya-th.

3

कर्यान् karyo-n. कर्येयन karjeya-n. | कर्येन् kary-N.

कर्येयन् karyĒya-n.

Plur.

1

afa karyov.

कर्येय karyéy.

9 karyzy.

कर्येय karyĒya

2

क-व karyi-0०. कर्येयव karjyo.. कर्येव kary:-us.

कर्येयव karyềyo-we

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As regards verbs ending in vowels, the usual rule is followed Thus, from fx khi, eat, the aorist participle is ta khěyov; and from fe ci, drink, yra cěyov.

From for ni, take, we get, as usual fareita niyov, not apa něyov. fedi, give and fx hi, take, are, as in the Past, irregular. Of fx di, the Aorist Participle is festa ditsūv (pl. faula ditsãy; fem. festa ditsąya), and of fx hi, vita hětsūv (pl. wat hětsıy; fem. ita hětsayo) (viii. iii. 32). See p. 61.

Double pronominal suffixes can be added, as in the case of the Past. Thus, watu karyo-th-as, thou madest me; ratne karyo-m-ay, I made for thee; watap karyō-m-as, I made for him. Other examples are unnecessary. The rules are exactly the same as in the case of the past tense. Vide, however, special cases mentioned after the Paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 70).

(b). Impersonal verb (viii. iii. 14). (c. forms only).

I laughed,' lit. it was laughed by me,' &c.
Singular 1 414 aső-m, I laughed.

2 votą asō-th, thou laughedst.

3 gota aso-n, he laughed. Plural 1 gotą asov, we laughed.

gela asā-we, you laughed.

3 qotę asō-kh, they laughed. When an impersonal verb is conjugated in the feminine (see pp. 22 and 48) we get

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SINGULAR AND PLURAL.

Singular 1 gw94 tsuvy@ya-m, I quarrelled.

2 garaa tsuvy@ya-th, thou didst quarrel.

3 ga tsuvyöya-n, he quarrelled.
Plural 1 ga tsuvy@yo, we quarrelled.

2 gaya tsuvyčye-we, you quarrelled.
3 tsutyễga-kh, they quarrelled.

The feminine impersonal verbs r tsar, &c., (see pp. 16, 22 and 49) have the following forms,

poleg tsaryčya-m, I was inwardly wrathful.
ifta tsary?yi-y (with inserted i; see p. 70 post), thou wast

inwardly angry.
piereg tsary@ya-s, he was inwardly angry.

And so on. So also (viii, iii. 45) jug tyambyēya-s (3rd conj.), he glanced eagerly.

B.

Second CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 39). (c. forms only).

'I became, &c.'

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1 बुगोस् bbvy6-8. | बव्येयस् bovyya-s. बव्येय bāvyy. a bỏvyễya.

बुन्योख boryorkh. बव्येयख bory:ya- | बुव्येव bovy:-०. बुव्येयव bory.yo.

2

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C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb ge wuph, fly (viii. iii. 39). (c. forms only).

'I flew (just now),' used in the sense of the Past, and not as the tense of the Aorist.

1st Sing. Masc. gut wuphyo-s, &c., exactly as in the second conjugation.

In this tense, the difference between the second and third conjugations consists in the formation of the Aorist Participle, as already explained, and not in the conjugation.

1 Içvara-kaula (viii. iii. 44) gives and bovyėwa, bat my Paņạit says this is a mistake. The form given above is the correct one.

The Aorist of fa pi, fall, used in the sense of the Past, is (viii. iii. 48, 60, 61),

'I fell, &c.

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Note the specially irregular 2nd person plur. masc.

The Aorist of verb e gatsh, go, used in the sense of the past, is (viii. iii. 48, 58, 60, 61).

'I went, &c.'

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When this verb is used in the meaning of 'be proper,' it is regalar, and belongs to the 2nd conjugation. Thus, die gatsh", it was propor (viii. iii. 58). In this sense it is only used in the Past. The Aorist and Pluperfect do not occur (82).

There are also other irregular Aorists of this conjugation. There are those of the roots fe yi, come ; fo zi, be born ; àr nēr, go forth ; 99 ats, enter; 99 pras, be born. The Aorist Participles, in the sense of the Past will be found in the list of irregular Aorist Participles, and no difficulty will be found in conjugating them. They are here given for ready reference.

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The feminine and masculine plurals are given in the list of Aorist Participles. It will be seen that they must be conjugated as if they were pluperfects. Vide p. 74.

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When the suffix of the dative of the second person singular is added to a form ending in ga ov, st o becomes a wą (o) (viii. iii. 43). Thus, aaia karybv + 7 ay, karyoy, we made for thee. खुपाय wuphyộy,' he flew for thee. ota gauv (root sa gatsh), he went; sala goy, he went for thee. ota pyauv, he fell; gen pyšy, he fell for thee. The plural of intą gauv, is ari gay, and they went for thee' is stą gay. So, 'they fell for thee' is aa ryạy.

[When the same form 94 ay is added to a form in a yo, Ti is inserted. Thus, omale kary@ya, she was made by us; ait for kary?yi-y, she was made by us for thee. Compare gafa tsary@yi-y on p. 68 ante).

1 These are the forms according to the Sūtra. But my Pandit maintains that the true forms are mata karyo-y, and ganz wuphyo-y. The exceptional forms, he says, only occur in the case of the verbs te gatsh, go, and fu pi, fall. The Sūtra while making the rule absolutely general, only gives the two last-named verbs as examples.

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