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With regard to roots ending in ri, the following are the forms (viii. iv. 9-13).

SIMPLE VERB.

CAUSAL. fa pi, fall.

argia pāwān chuh, he causes

to fall. fę di, give.

दावान् कुह dārān chuh, or दिवनावान कुह

diwanāwān chuh, he causes

to give. fa ni, take.

241919 ur nyāwān chuh, or

fagaraia niwanāwān chuh,

he causes to take. fy ci, drink.

9191 cydwan chuh, or

9190191a cyāwanāwān chuh,

he gives to drink, fc khi, eat.

en191qe khyāwān chuh, or malamakhyāwanāwān chuh,

he gives to eat. fe hi, take.

91919 Thyāwān chuh, or

991917 yr hyawanāwān chuh

(sic), be causes to take.
Regarding for yi, come, see supra, p. 5.
Regarding fa zi, be born, see post, p. 9.

Other verbs of the third conjugation form their causals by adding erāw (viii. iv. 20). Before this,

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यो ।

o ū (viii. iy. 27). Moreover, if the final consonant of the root is I t it becomes ts.

d

on or unn

s ñ (viii. iv. 25).

[The only root of the third conjugation which ends in q th is aru pāth, become, and, according to my Paņạit, its causal is regular, argia y pāthanāwān chuh. atærraca păts horāwān chuh, is possible, but unusual]. De kal, be dumb.

narinig y kąlarāwān chuh, lie

makes dumb. 799 gob, be too heavy. olmala y gobarāwān chuh, he

makes too heavy. 48 vyath, be fat.

aotiaia y vyątherāwān chuh, he

makes fat. ara kān, be one-eyed. Riniai ty kõñarāwān chuh, lie

makes one-eyed. a thik, stand firmly. Batracą yp thikarāwān chuh, he

makes to stand firmly. ao tēz, be sharp.

ara tizérāwān chuh, he

makes sharp. is brēth, be a fool.

Atarraca brīthorāwān chuh, he

makes foolish. a poth, be fat.

पूठावान् कुह pathorāvān chuh, he

makes fat. in lūk, be small.

traig y lūkørāwān chuh, he

makes small. un chat, be wbite.

trają chạtserāwān chuh, he

makes white. an tat, be hot.

aquara tạtserāwān chuh, he

makes hot. of thad, be high.

11917 yip thạzerāwān chuh, he

elevates. ve çöd, be pure.

Hoiala TT çözerāwān chuh, he

purifies. a ban, be.

scara y bañerāwān chuh, he

causes to be. na tan, be thio.

Amaia tạñorāwān chuh, he The verb a tsök, if it means be sour,' makes its causal alą F tsokerāwān chuh; but if it means ' be angry,' its causal is gatina

makes thin.

tsukorāwān chuh. The verb ae khul, be loose, makes its causal daraja yy khąlerāwān chuh, or 451ama khajarāwān chuh.

The following verbs form their causals optionally by adding either anāw, or brāw, (viii. iv. 19, 21, 22, 23).

First Conjugation : chak, scatter ; 9 chap, pass time; a tsen, know by a sign ; #19 mān, confess.

Second Conjugation : 0 tsal, flee; a tshyann, be split; 49 thak, be weary; 48 phas, be entangled ; ye phut, be broken ; # phöll, expand (of a flower); 89 maș, forget; tra rāv, be lost; 6c hỏkh, be dry; ** hots, decay ; 774 crap, be digested.

Third Conjugation : 7 tyath, be bitter.

Thus, straia e tsiñarāwān chuh, organla y tsēnanāvān chuh; peralatalarāwān chuh, or enda 7 tsalanāwān chuh ; torria tyąthorāvăn chuh, or goaraza y !yațhanāwān chuh.

The root aa chal does not alter its meaning in the causal in arāw. Thus, aa chakān chuh, 474ą op chạkarāvān chuh, both mean 'he scatters.' To give a causal meaning it las malala chakanāwān chuh, or atalare chąkoranāwān chuh.

The root au chap has for its causal mariają op chạperāwān chuh, patata y chapanāwān chuh, or iqtiają chợperāwān chuh.

The following verbs of the third conjugation form their cansals in anāw, and not in rāw (viij. iv. 17). 49 kats, be wet; 198 gõh, shine; प्रक grak, boil over; ज़ोत cot, shine ; टक tok, run; वेल tel, smart ; तोष tūş, be satisfied (according to my Pandit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation); ir dūr, run; aig nãp, shine; ale nil, become blue; fue pis, boil orer; 93 pēd, exude; ot põr, be competent; 917 prār, wait (according to my Pandit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation); 49 phab, be excellent; 97 phar, be stolen ; une phal, become old (of clothes); phuç or fe phuh, be inwardly angry; 67 phēr, go round ; 1 phòr, quiver (according to my Pandit, this verb belongs

to the 2nd conjugation); 417 bād, be powerful; ale bās, become clear (according to my Paņdit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation); ve bud, be old : 9 braz, shine ; n yap, pervade; ramb, be beautiful; e ras, be full of juice; ty rots, be preferred; te rot, be stopped ; Fred, persistently follow ; TT røn, be worn out; u lyad, be conquered; ott lor, become deficient. Thus, qarata F kotsanāwān chuh, not ala kotgrāwān chuh.

All causal verbs in Grūw, may optionally drop the syllable āw in the termination, and add an instead of brāw (viii. iv. 24). Thus,

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The following verbs form their causals by merely lengthening their root vowels (viii. iv. 28).

at tar, be crossed. Causal arra ? tärān chuh, he crosses.
HT mur, die.

ATIT TT mārān chuh, he kills.
dal, pass over. era dālān chuh, he causes to

pass over. lag, be with.

Cha T lāgān chuh, he unites. When HT mar (18, 28), means 'unite,' and when I lag (28) means “suffer pain,' or 'fit,' they are regular. Thus, horara maranāwān chuh, he causes to unite ; 1919 laganāwān chuh, he causes to suffer pain.

The following are quite irregular,-
fa zi, be born. Causal watia zīvørăn chuh, he brings

forth (26).
09 khas, ascend.

HTTP khārān chuh, he causes to

ascend (29) 98 vas, descend.

ATTIT T wärän chuh, he brings down

(29). J. 1. 2

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era y sāwān chuh, he puts to

sleep (30). SIERT V zálān chuh, he burns

(act.) (31). 1919 ? hāwān chuh, he shows (32). 90ana y pakanāwān chuh, he

drives. MIZIT gatshanācān chuh, he

despatches (33) Thus, गोवून पकनावान् छह govin paka

năwān chuh, be drives the cows; Jing ugalaia y gangāya gatshanā

wān chu-s, he sends him to the

Ganges. gua y tulān chuh, he raises, he lifts up;

but व्वथनावान् कुह wothanāwān chuh, he causes so and so to rise (34).

woth, rise.

Verbal Suffixes.

Before proceeding to the consideration of the conjugation of the verb, it is necessary to describe in detail one remarkable feature of the Kāçmiri language, which it shares with other languages of the NorthWestern group of the Indo-Aryan Vernaculars, namely, the facility with which the meaning of the verbal stem can be modified by the addition of suffixes. Indeed, it may be said that, given the form of a tense-stem, there is usually no conjugation, in the proper sense of the word, at all. In most cases, suffixes, which may be added, or detached, at pleasure, and most of which have an independent recognised existence, are added, and give the various modifications of meaning which we designate number and person, or of negation, affirmation, and so on, by forming true compound words, and without becoming merged in the base in the form of terminations. Thus, take the word #ę karm. This means ' made,' and mny mean, 'made by me,''made by us,' bim' and so on. That is to say, it means, 'I made,''we made,'' he made,' &c. If we wish to lay stress on the person who made, we may say afh aq tạmi karą, ' by him made,' i.e., 'be made. Instead, however of using af tạmi, the instrumental singular of the third

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