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With regard to roots ending in ri, the following are the forms (viii. iv. 9-13).

SIMPLE VERB.

CAUSAL. fa pi, fall.

91914. pāwān chuh, he causes

to fall. f di, give.

दावान् कुह davān chuh, or दिवनावान .

Op diwanāwān chuh, he causes

to give. fa ni, take.

anaa y nyāwān chuh, or

faqaraia niwanāwān chuh,

he causes to take. fvci, drink.

91917 cyāwān chuh, or

19tala cyawanāwān chuh,

he gives to drink. fu khi, eat.

1917 U* khyāwān chuh, or

1991 khyāwanāwān chuh,

he gives to eat. fr hi, take.

191a F hyāwān chuh, or

walang hyawanāwān chuh

(sic), he causes to take.
Regarding for yi, come, see supra, p. 5.
Regarding for zi, be born, see post, p. 9.

Other verbs of the third conjugation form their causals by adding erāw (viii. iv. 20). Before this,

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यो ।

ů (viii. iv. 27). Moreover, if the final consonant of the root is I t it becomes ts.

d

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[The only root of the third conjugation which ends in a th is gru pāth, become, and, according to my Paņạit, its cansal is regular, 419711a pāthanāwān chuh. atatiaia y păts horāwān chuh, is possible, but unusual]. kal, be dumb.

serialą kalarāwān chuh, lie

makes dumb. 144 gob, be too heavy. saqorala y gặparāwān chuh, he

makes too heavy. as vyath, be fat.

aotiana vyatherāwān chuh, he

makes fat. 19 kan, be one-eyed. aitaa yr kāñerāwān chuh, he

makes one-eyed. a thik, stand firmly. garraia y thikarāwān chuh, he

makes to stand firmly. a tēz, be sharp.

ataria tizerāwān chuh, he

makes sharp. sa brēgh, be a fool.

Atarraca brītherāwān chuh, he

makes foolish. to poth, be fat.

Tatrala u pūtherāwān chuh, he

makes fat. u lūk, be small.

alq lükørāwān chuh, he

makes small. a chat, be white.

ana y chạtserāwān chuh, he

makes white. na tat, be hot.

antara y tątserāwān chuh, he

makes hot. of thad, be high.

1911917 y thạzerāwān chuh, he

elevates. çöd, be pure.

Hala çözerāwān chuh, he

purifies. a ban, be.

stalą banorāwān chuh, he

causes to be. na tan, be thio.

Aquaq iş tạñorāwān chuh, he

makes thin.

The verb ya tsõk, if it means ' be sour,' makes its causal ila y tsokorāwān chuh; but if it means ' be angry,' its causal is 971919 T* tsukorāwün chuh. The verb khal, be loose, makes its causal tatiana khąlerāwān chuh, or rata y khajarīwān chuh.

The following verbs form their causals optionally by adding either anāw, or Grāw, (viii. iv. 19, 21, 22, 23).

First Conjugation : ** chak, scatter ; 9 chap, pass time; a tsēn, know by a sign; #ra mān, confess.

Second Conjugation : ratsal, flee; ya tshyann, be split; ya thak, be weary; 44 phas, be entangled ; y phut, be broken ; # pholl, expand (of a flower) ; # maş, forget; tra rāv, be lost; kc hỏkh, be dry; 5 hots, decay ; 79 crap, be digested.

Third Conjugation : 75 tyath, be bitter.

Thus, storala tsiñorāwān chuh, or garaia y tsēnanāwān chuh; pretracą tšąlarāwān chuh, or 991919 ts alanāwān chuh ; torracą o tyątherāwān chuh, or yarala o tyațhanāwān chuh.

The root on chak does not alter its meaning in the causal in Grāw. Thus, wią chakān chuh, atralą o chakorāwān chuh, both mean 'he scatters.' To give a causal meaning it has 99194 chakanāwān chuh, or malala y chạkeranāwān chuh.

The root au chap has for its causal ayala y chạparāwān chuh, qalaca chapanāwān chuh, or traiq chợparāwān chuh.

The following verbs of the third conjugation form their cansals in anāw, and not in Grāw (viii. iv. 17). 49 kats, be wet; 197 gõh, shine ; 9a grak, boil over; ta zot, shine ; Za tok, run; ao tēl, smart; aig tās, be satisfied (according to my Pandit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation); att dör, run; ata nãp, shine; at nil, become blue; fue pis, boil over; as pēd, exude; ut por, be competent; 917 prār, wait (according to my Paņạit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation); 49 phab, be excellent; 97 phar, be stolen ; une phal, become old (of clothes); qu phuç or y phuh, be inwardly angry; &t phēr, go round ; phòr, quiver (according to my Pandit, this verb belongs

to the 2nd conjugation); SIĘ bad, be powerful; Trg bās, become clear (according to my Paņdit, this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation); ve bud, be old : 49 braz, shine; tr yāp, pervade; ca ramb, be beautiful; Ty ras, be full of juice; die rots, be preferred; te rõț, be stopped ; Fred, persistently follow ; Turan, be worn out; we lyad, be conquered; ut lor, become deficient. Thus, qarata F kotsanāwān chuh, not ala kotsarāwān chuh.

All causal verbs in brāw, may optionally drop the syllable āw in the termination, and add an instead of Grāw (viii. iv. 24). Thus,

We

Instead of

may

havemediana y kalerīwān chuh HETTE " kạlerān chuh haciara y goberāwān chuh matra se gợberân chuh

yaran tsokorāwān chuh ma s tsộkarān chuh and so on.

The following verbs form their causals by merely lengthening their root vowels (viii. iv. 28).

at tar, be crossed. Causal aria F tārān chuh, he crosses.
HT mur, die.

ATTITYY mārān chuh, he kills.
e dal, pass over.

डालान् छह dālān chuh, he causes to

pass over. TJ lag, be with.

1 T lāgān chuh, he unites. When HT mar (18, 28), means 'unite,' and when I lag (28) means “suffer pain,' or 'fit,' they are regular. Thus, atarara u maranāwān chuh, he causes to unite ; 1919 5 laganāwān chuh, he causes to suffer pain.

The following are quite irregular,-
for zi, be born. Causal patia F zõverān chuh, he brings

forth (26).
09 khas, ascend.

CITIT UP khārān chuh, he causes to

ascend (29) 48 vas, descend.

Typ wärän chuh, he brings down

J. 1. 2

çõng, go to sleep.

25 daz, burn.

Ĉu dēs, see.

gatsh.

erata y sāwān chuh, he puts to

sleep (30). HEM UP zalān chuh, he burns

(act.) (31). 1917 ? hāwān chuh, he shows (32). 4771917 y pakanāwān chuh, he

drives. Mai@ga shamācān chuh, he

despatches (33). Thus, orta? 141417 5 govân paka

nawān chuh, be drives the cows; Jing aparata gangāye gatshanā

wăn chu-s, he sends him to the

Ganges. ju v tulān chuh, he raises, he lifts up;

but व्वथनावान् कुह wõthanāwān chuh, he causes and so to rise (34).

u woth, rise.

SO

Verbal Suffixes. Before proceeding to the consideration of the conjugation of the verb, it is necessary to describe in detail one remarkable feature of the Kāçmiri language, which it shares with other languages of the NorthWestern group of the Indo-Aryan Vernaculars, namely, the facility with which the meaning of the verbal stem can be modified by the addition of suffixes. Indeed, it may be said that, given the form of a tense-stem, there is usually no conjugation, in the proper sense of the word, at all. In most cases, suffixes, which may be added, or detached, at pleasure, and most of which have an independent recognised existence, are added, and give the various modifications of meaning which we designate number and person, or of negation, affirmation, and so on, by forming true compound words, and without becoming merged in the base in the form of terminations. Thus, take the word hy kąra. This means ' made,' and may mean, 'made by me,'' made by us,' 'made by bim' and

That is to say, it means, 'I made,'' we de,'' he made,' &c. If we wish to lay stress on the person who made, we may say afH #q tạmi karą, ' by him made,' i.e., he made.” Instead, however of using dif# tạmi, the instrumental singular of the third

on.

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