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6 (a). THE PLUPERFECT PARTICIPLE.
This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first two conjugations (viii. iii. 78), it expresses remote time. Thus,
karyā-n, he made (a long time ago);
fa bovyāv, he became (a long
In the third conjugation it is used in the sense of an Aorist Participle, and expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. It is hence the participle, and the Pluperfect is the tense, of narration in this conjugation. Thus, gura wuphyāv, he flew. In order to supply the place of Pluperfect, a new tense is formed in this conjugation, which may be called the True Pluperfect. Thus, gfara wuphiyāv, he flew a long time ago.
The Pluperfect Participle is formed by changing the termination ō of the aorist participle to āv (viii. iii. 35). Thus Aorist Participle, a karyōv; Pluperfect Participle, afa karyāv. In the
first conjugation, the masculine plural is formed by inserting ē, before the termination of the masculine plural of the Aorist Participle. Thus, fą karyōv; masc. plur. q karyēy; Pluperfect part. masc. plur. âą karēyêy (viii. iii. 36). When the Aorist masc. plural ends in ta āy (vide, p. 61) this is changed to a āyēy. Thus; Aorist Participle hětsōv, taken; masc. plur. galą hětsậy; Pluperfect Part. masc. plur. hětsṬyēy (viii. iii. 37). The feminine singular and plural are the same as those of the Aorist Participle (viii. iii. 38).
In the second and third conjugations, the masculine plural is formed by changing av of the singular to ay (viii, iii, 40).
See, however, p. 74. Thus wuphyāv, flown; masc. pl.,
wuphyay. The feminine (singular and plural) is formed by changing
आब् āv to एय ēye. Thus वुफ्वेयय wwwphyāye (viii, iii. 44.
6 (b). THE PLUPERFECT TENSE.
This is formed from the Pluperfect Participle, exactly as the Aorist Tense is formed from the Aorist Participle.
We thus get the following forms.
A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
Transitive verb (viii. iii. 35). (c. forms only).
'I made,' lit., he, she, it, etc., was (were) made by me, you, him, us, &c.'
From f khi, eat, we have ą khěyā-m; plur. Qîâų khěyēyē-m. So from fa ci, drink.
From fa ni, take, faq niyā-m and faââ¤ niyēyē-m.
Similarly, from, fhi, take,
hětṣā-m; plur. atâų hětsāyē-m ;
and from fa di, give, fearą ditsām, and felâ ditsṬyē-m (see p. 71). Impersonal verbs are similarly conjugated. Thus, asā-m,
I laughed. Those that are conjugated in the feminine (see pp. 16, 22, 49 and 68), are, of course, the same as the Aorist.
Double pronominal suffixes may be added, as in the case of the Past and the Aorist. Thus, af karya-th-as, thou madest me; ing karyā-m-ay, I made for thee; fuę karyā-m-as, I made for him. Further examples are unnecessary. See, however, the special cases mentioned after the paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 75).
B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40). (c. forms only).
'I became a long time ago.'
1 | बुब्यास् bövyā-s.
वब्येयस् bövyāya-s. वब्याय् bövyāy. बृब्येय bovyeye.
2 | बव्याख् bövyā-kh. बुथेयख् bövyāya-kh. बब्याब bövyā po. वन्येयवbovyeye
In this conjugation, the tense has merely the meaning of an Aorist, not of a Pluperfect, and is the tense used in narration. It is conjugated as follows.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40, 44). (c. forms only).
1 Içvara-kaula gives wuphye-wa, which my Pandit says is wrong.
J. 1. 10
In the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives g
wuphyey, but this
is directly contrary to the rule (viii. iii. 40) of which the word is given
as an example.
If it is desired to give the force of the pluperfect to a verb of the 3rd conjugation, we must insert ani before the yāv of the participle. We thus get what I call the True-Pluperfect tense, which is as follows (viii. iii. 50).
TRUE PLUPERFECT (3rd conjugation only) (c. forms only).
For the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives (viii. iii. 40) as examples both fydų mŏkaliyēy and a fury mŏkaliyāy, we or they were released. According to his own rule, of which these are examples, the latter is the correct form. For the second person plural feminine he gives (44) afaâa naviyēwo, you became new, which, according to my Pandit is incorrect for faâqa naviyēye-wa.
This form cannot be used after cases ending in ¶ ts, ■ tsh, ♬ z, or ñ. Thus, plup. a tēzyāv, not afra tēziyāv (viii. iii. 51).
As an example of the True Pluperfect of the feminine impersonal verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 49, 54, 67, and 68), we may give (viii. iii. 45) ¿faâ¶¶ tyambiyēya-m, I glanced eagerly.
fafa tyambiyēyi-y (see p. 70), thou didst glance eagerly. fatyambiyēya-s, he glanced eagerly.
The formation of the Pluperfect and True Pluperfect participles of the following verbs is irregular :
PLUPERFECT PARTICIPLE. TRUE PLUPERFECT
It will be seen that these Pluperfect Participles (in the sense of the Aorist) are really Aorist Participles of the second conjugation. The feminine, and masculine plural forms, will be found in the list of irregular Aorist Participles (pp. 62 and ff.).
When pronominal suffixes are added to this tense, a final a vor ay is elided, as in the case of the aorist (p. 66). Thus, ¶¶ āyāv+¶¶ as, पायास् āyā-s, he came to him. बायाय् āyāy + बस् as, पायास् āya-s, they came to him. Other examples of these suffixes are āyā-8 +¶¶ as, चायासस् āyā-s-as, I came to him ; बायाख् āyā-kh+अस् as, जायाहस् āyā-h-as, thou camest to him; ¶191¶_ãyd-we+¶¶ as, ¶rar¶¶ āyā-wa-s, you came to him (viii. iii. 41).
for thee ; द्रोय्
When ay, the suffix of the dative of the second person singular is added ; आब् āv becomes जो 5, and बाय् ay, यो ? ( 42 ). Thus, बोय् öy (चाव् ãv+ अय्_ay), he came for thee; बोय् @y, they came drōy, he came out for thee; t dray, they came out for thee; entered for thee; tsay, they entered for thee. So gf ho flow for thee (दुफियाव् wwwphiyāv + जय् ay).