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النشر الإلكتروني

6 (a). THE PLUPERFECT PARTICIPLE. This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first two conjugations (viii. iii. 78), it expresses remote time. Thus, arefa karya-n, he made (a long time ago); qara bovyāv, he became (a long time ago).

In the third conjugation it is used in the sense of an Aorist Participle, and expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. It is hence the participle, and the Pluperfect is the tense, of narration in this conjugation. Thus, yula wuphyāv, he flew. In order to supply the place of Pluperfect, a new tense is formed in this conjugation, which may be called the True Pluperfect. Thus, goera wuphiyāv, he flew a long time ago.

The Pluperfect Participle is formed by changing the termination gą ūv of the aorist participle to era àv (viii. iii. 35). Thus Aorist Participle, wafa karyov; Pluperfect Participle, fa karyāv. In the first conjugation, the masculine plural is formed by inserting tē, before the termination of the masculine plural of the Aorist Participle. Thus, wafa karyõv ; masc. plur. porq karyy; Pluperfect part. masc. plur. aina karęyêy (viii. iii. 36). When the Aorist masc. plural ends in ala ay (vide, p. 61) this is changed to atata ayēy. Thus; Aorist Participle wa hětsõv, taken ; masc. plur. vt hětsąy ; Pluperfect Part. masc. plur. vteq hětsõyễy (viii. iii. 37). The feminine singular and plural are the same as those of the Aorist Participle (viii. iii. 38).

In the second and third conjugations, the masculine plural is formed by changing 9 āv of the singular to vray (viii, iii, 40). See, however, p. 74. Thus gula wuphyāv, flown; masc. pl., gratų wuphyāy. The feminine (singular and plural) is formed by changing 919 av to pa ēye. Thus we wuphy?ye (viii, iii. 44).

6 (6). THE PLUPERFECT Tense. This is formed from the pluperfect Participle, exactly as the Aorist Tense is formed from the Aorist Participle.

We thus get the following forms.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.

Transitive verb (viii. iii. 35). (c. forms only).
I made,' lit., he, she, it, etc., was (were made by me, you, bim,

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From fe khi, eat, we have chą khěyā-m; plur. ea khěy?y-m. So from fe ci, drink.

From नि ni, take, नियाम् niya-m and नियेयेम् niyeye-m.

Similarly, from, fe hi, take, 491ự hětsā-m; plur. olą hětsāyê-m; and from fe di, give, femių ditsām, and festay ditsāyè-m (see p. 71).

Impersonal verbs are similarly conjugated. Thus, wių asă-m, I laughed. Those that are conjugated in the feminine (see pp. 16, 22, 49 and 68), are, of course, the same as the Aorist.

Double pronominal suffixes may be added, as in the case of the Past and the Aorist. Thus, tutup karyā-th-as, thou madest me; walay karyā-m-ay, I made for thee; the karyā-m-as, I made for him. Further examples are unnecessary. See, however, the special cases mentioned after the paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 75).

B. Second CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40). (c. forms only).

I became a long time ago.'

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1 tere bovyā-s. The bovy@ya-s. Fare bovyāy. a bõvy@ye. 2 बस्याल bavya-kh. बुध्येयस् bārysya-kh. वृष्याव bāvya-w°. बुयेयव borysys.

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C. THIRD CONJUGATION. In this conjugation, the tense has merely the meaning of an Aorist, not of a pluperfect, and is the tense used in narration. It is conjugated as follows. Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40, 44). (c. forms only).

I flew, &c. '

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I lovara-kaula gives gwa wuphyé-wa, which my Pandit says is wrong.

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In the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives gay wuphy@y, but this is directly contrary to the rule (viii. iii. 40) of which the word is given as an example.

If it is desired to give the force of the pluperfect to a verb of the 3rd conjugation, we must insert an Ti before the 19 yāv of the participle. We thus get what I call the True-Pluperfect tense, which is as follows (viii. iii. 50).

TRUE PLUPERFECT (3rd conjugation only) (c. forms only).

'I flew (a long time ago), &c.'

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For the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives (viii. iii. 40) as examples both wafety mỏkaliyễy and wafering mỏkabiyāy, we or they were released. According to his own rule, of which these are examples, the latter is the correct form. For the second person plural feminine he gives (44) afaa naviyêwe, you became new, which, according to my Paņạit is incorrect for afaaga naviy@ya-we.

This form cannot be used after cases ending in te, tsh, z, or q ñ. Thus, plup. dora tēzyāv, not aferella tēziyāv (viii. iii. 51).

As an example of the True Pluperfect of the feminine impersonal verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 49, 54, 67, and 68), we may give (viii. iii. 45)

mifcuy tyambiyêya-m, I glanced eagerly.
mifcafera tyambiyễyi-y (see p. 70), thou didst glance eagerly.
mfang tyambiyềya-s, he glanced eagerly.

The formation of the Pluperfect and True Pluperfect participles of the following verbs is irregular :PLUPERFECT PARTICIPLE. TRUE PLUPERFECT

PARTICIPLE.

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It will be seen that these pluperfect Participles in the sense of the Aorist) are really Aorist Participles of the second conjugation. The feminine, and masculine plural forms, will be found in the list of irregular Aorist Participles (pp. 62 and ff.).

When pronominal sufixes are added to this tense, a final a vor I y is elided, as in the case of the aorist (p. 66). Thus, arura āyāv + as, पायास् aya-s, he came to him. पायाय् āyāy+ पस् as, चायास् āya-s, they came to him. Other examples of these suffixes are qarę āyā-8 +9 as, पायासस् ayā-s-as, I came to him ; चायाए āyā-kh+पस् as, पायाहस् āya-h-as, thou camest to him; gran dya-we +98 as, 19199 āya-wa-s, you came to him (viii. iii. 41).

When Tay, the suffix of the dative of the second person singular is added ; पाव āv becomes पो , and चाय dy, पो (42). Thus, चोय by (en av + ay), he came for thee; stą ży, they came for thee ; De droy, he came out for thee; stą drąy, they came out for thee; ta tsõy, he entered for thee; le tsay, they entered for thee. So groala wuphiyoy, he flew for thee (grouri wuphiyāv + 4 ay).

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