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6 (a). The PLUPERFECT PARTICIPLE. This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first two conjugations (viii. iii. 78), it expresses remote time. Thus, aayfa karyā-n, he made (a long time ago); qara bovyāv, he became (a long time ago).

In the third conjugation it is used in the sense of an Aorist Participle, and expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. It is hence the participle, and the Pluperfect is the tense, of narration in this conjugation. Thus, Tarą wuphyāv, he flew. In order to supply the place of Pluperfect, a new tense is formed in this conjugation, which may be called the True Pluperfect. Thus, gfora wuphiyāv, he flew a long time ago.

The Pluperfect Participle is formed by changing the termination tą ūv of the aorist participle to urą āv (viii. iii. 35). Thus Aorist Participle, ata karyov; Pluperfect Participle, aperta karyāv. In the first conjugation, the masculine plural is formed by inserting tē, before the termination of the masculine plural of the Aorist Participle. Thus, wafa karyov ; masc. plur. emra kary@y; Pluperfect part. masc. plur. niha karēzēy (viii. iii. 36). When the Aorist masc. plural ends in ata ay (vide, p. 61) this is changed to stay ayēy. Thus ; Aorist Participle yą hětsõv, taken ; masc. plur. vt hětsay; Pluperfect Part. masc. plur. 197 hětsāyềy (viii. iii. 37). The feminine singular and plural are the same as those of the Aorist Participle (viii. iii. 38).

In the second and third conjugations, the masculine plural is formed by changing 41a àv of the singular to ar āy (viii, iii, 40). See, however, p. 74. Thus gula wuphyāv, flown; masc. pl., quale wuphyāy. The feminine (singular and plural) is formed by changing 914 av to me @ye. Thus we wuphy?ye (viii, iii. 44).

6 (6). THE PLUPERFECT TENSE. This is formed from the Pluperfect Participle, exactly as the Aorist Tense is formed from the Aorist Participle.

We thus get the following forms.

A. First CONJUGATION. Transitive verb (viii. iii. 35). (c. forms only). 'I made,' lit., 'he, she, it, etc., was (were) made by me, you, him,

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Double pronominal suffixes may be added, as in the case of the Past and the Aorist. Thus, metup karyā-th-as, thou madest me; mother karyā-m-ay, I made for thee; afhę karyā-m-as, I made for him. Further examples are unnecessary. See, however, the special cases mentioned after the paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 75).

B. Second CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40). (c. forms only).

'I became a long time ago.'

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C. THIRD CONJUGATION. In this conjugation, the tense has merely the meaning of an Aorist, not of a pluperfect, and is the tense used in narration. It is conjugated as follows. Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40, 44). (c. forms only).

"I flew, &c.'

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In the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives grana wuphy@y, but this is directly contrary to the rule (viii. iii. 40) of which the word is given as an example.

If it is desired to give the force of the pluperfect to a verb of the 3rd conjugation, we must insert an ( i before the 719 yāv of the participle. We thus get what I call the True-Pluperfect tense, which is as follows (viii. iii. 50). True PluPeRFECT (3rd conjugation only) (c. forms only).

'I flew (a long time ago), &c.'

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For the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives (viï. iii. 40) as ex. amples both mafuta mókaliyềy and wafera mokabiyāy, we or they were released. According to his own rule, of which these are examples, the latter is the correct form. For the second person plural feminine he gives (44) afaga naviyễwe, you became new, which, according to my Paņạit is incorrect for afaana naviyễye-we.

This form cannot be used after cases ending in çtę, w tsh, oz, or æ ñ. Thus, plup. d a tēzyāv, not aferella tēziyāv (viii. iii. 51).

As an example of the True Pluperfect of the feminine impersonal verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 49, 54, 67, and 68), we may give (viii. iii. 45)

Rifacuy tyambiyễya-m, I glanced eagerly.
pifcaforą tyambiyĒyi-y (see p. 70), thou didst glance eagerly.
Rifatny tyambiyềya-s, he glanced eagerly.

The formation of the Pluperfect and True Pluperfect participles of the following verbs is irregular :

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