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6 (a). THE PLUPERFECT PARTICIPLE. This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first two conjugations (viii. iii. 78), it expresses remote time. Thus, apala karya-n, he made (a long time ago); para bovyāv, he became (a long time ago).

In the third conjugation it is used in the sense of an Aorist Participle, and expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. It is hence the participle, and the Pluperfect is the tense, of narration in this conjugation. Thus, gera wuphyāv, he flew. In order to supply the place of Pluperfect, a new tense is formed in this conjugation, which may be called the True Pluperfect. Thus, gfvera wuphiyāv, he flew a long time ago.

The Pluperfect Participle is formed by changing the termination otą ūv of the aorist participle to era àv (viii. iii. 35). Thus Aorist Participle, ata karyov; Pluperfect Participle, ofa karyāv. In the first conjugation, the masculine plural is formed by inserting tē, before the termination of the masculine plural of the Aorist Participle. Thus, wafa karyõv ; masc. plur. orą karyy; Pluperfect part. masc. plur. aika karêyêy (viii. iii. 36). When the Aorist masc. plural ends in aty ay (vide, p. 61) this is changed to alətą ayēy. Thus ; Aorist Participle wa hětsõv, taken ; masc. plur. va hětsąy ; Pluperfect Part. masc. plur. wtay hětsāyêy (viii. iii. 37). The feminine singular and plural are the same as those of the Aorist Participle (viii. iii. 38).

In the second and third conjugations, the masculine plural is formed by changing ara av of the singular to ar āy (viii, iii, 40). See, however, p. 74. Thus gala wuphyāv, flown; masc. pl., gratą wuphyāy. The feminine (singular and plural) is formed by changing 919 av to pe ?ye. Thus 427 wuphy@ye (viii, iii. 44).

6 (6). THE PLUPERFECT TENSE. This is formed from the pluperfect Participle, exactly as the Aorist Tense is formed from the Aorist Participle.

We thus get the following forms.

A. First CONJUGATION.

Transitive verb (viii. iii. 35). (c. forms only). "I made,' lit., 'he, she, it, etc., was (were) made by me, you, bim,

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From fa khi, eat, we have 914 khěyā-m; plur. oyihy khěyēzē-m. So from feci, drink.

From नि ni, take, नियाम् niya-m and नियेयेम् niyye-m.

Similarly, from, fx hi, take, wię hětsă-m; plur. wą hětsāyê-m; and from fe di, give, ferry ditsām, and fantasy ditsāyê-m (see p. 71).

Impersonal verbs are similarly conjugated. Thus, 41 asā-m, I laughed. Those that are conjugated in the feminine (see pp. 16, 22, 49 and 68), are, of course, the same as the Aorist.

Double pronominal suffixes may be added, as in the case of the Past and the Aorist. Thus, wetu karya-th-as, thou madest me; why karyā-m-ay, I made for thee; mathe karyā-m-as, I made for him. Further examples are unnecessary. See, however, the special cases mentioned after the paradigm of the third conjugation (p. 75).

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40). (c. forms only).

'I became a long time ago.'

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Gare bovyā-s. pag bỏvy@ya-s. qara bõvyāy. ध्येय bāvyay. . 2 parę bỏvyā-kh. are bovyĒya-kh. qara bovyā-wo. gera bòvyễye.

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C. THIRD CONJUGATION. In this conjugation, the tense has merely the meaning of an Aorist, not of a Pluperfect, and is the tense used in narration. It is conjugated as follows. Neuter verb (viii. iii. 40, 44). (c. forms only).

I flew, &c.

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1 lgvara-kaula gives gwa wuphyê-wa, which my Pandit says is wrong.

J. 1. 10

In the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives gane wuphy@y, but this is directly contrary to the rule (viii. iii. 40) of which the word is given as an example.

If it is desired to give the force of the pluperfect to a verb of the 3rd conjugation, we must insert an Ti before the 19 yāv of the participle. We thus get what I call the True-Pluperfect tense, which is as follows (viii. iii. 50).

TRUE PLUPERFECT (3rd conjugation only) (c. forms only).

'I flew (a long time ago), &c.'

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For the plural masculine Içvara-kaula gives (viii. iii. 40) as ex. amples both mafuta měkaliyễy and wafura mokaliyāy, we or they were released. According to his own rule, of which these are examples, the latter is the correct form. For the second erson plural feminine he gives (44) afała naviyêwe, you became new, which, according to my Paņạit is incorrect for afanya naviyĒye-we.

This form cannot be used after cases ending in ts, v tsh, z, or æ ñ. Thus, plup. Gogla tēzyāv, not aforala tēziyāv (viii. iii. 51).

As an example of the True Pluperfect of the feminine impersonal verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 49, 54, 67, and 68), we may give (viii. iii. 45)

rifrà4 tyambiyêya-m, I glanced eagerly.
rifa afera tyambiyễyi-y (see p. 70), thou didst glance eagerly.
mifaggy tyambiyĒya-s, he glanced eagerly.

The formation of the Pluperfect and True Pluperfect participles of the following verbs is irregular :

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It will be seen that these pluperfect Participles (in the sense of the Aorist) are really Aorist Participles of the second conjugation. The feminine, and masculine plural forms, will be found in the list of irregular Aorist Participles (pp. 62 and ff.).

When pronominal suffixes are added to this tense, a final o vor ? y is elided, as in the case of the aorist (p. 66). Thus, erara āyāv +99 as, पायास् ayd-s, he came to him. पायाय् āyāy+बस् as, चायास् āyd-s, they came to him. Other examples of these suffixes are yaię āyā-8 +99 as, aparep āyā-s-as, I came to him ; 9791€ āyā-kh +90 as, qr416 aya-h-as, thou camest to him; ara ayd-we + pas, st419 aya-wa-s, you came to him (viii. iii. 41).

When yg ay, the suffix of the dative of the second person singular is added ; पाव् āv becomes पो , and चाय ay, पो (42). Thus, चोय 8y (ar av + ay), he came for thee; alą ay, they came for thee; No drôy, he came out for thee; stą drāy, they came out for thee; tą tsöy, entered for thee; wa tsay, they entered for thee. So ghata wuphiyoy, he flew for thee (groung wuphiyāv + 4 ay).

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