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النشر الإلكتروني

7. PERFECT TENSE.

This tense is not described by Içvara-kaula. It is formed by conjugating the Adjectival Past Participle with the Present tense of the Auxiliary Verb. As in the case of the other past tenses, the construction is passive in verbs of the first conjugation, and active in verbs of the second and third. The pronominal suffixes are added as in the past tenses. They are added to the Auxiliary Verb, and not to the Participle. In the first conjugation they are suffixes of the agent case, and in the other two of the nominative case. As in the case of the Past tense, there are a, b, and c forms,-i.e., we may omit the suffises at pleasure, except in the second person. Thus,

(a). wfe maha T tạmi kạræmat" chuh, by him has been made,-
(b). afar miqdo g7 tạmi kar#matk chu-n, by him has been made-

by-him,-
(c). *? g karumą!“ chu-n, has been made-by-him,-
all meaning' he has made.'
In the second person, only the b and c forms are used. Thus,-
(b). alaha ya tohề karamais chu-we, by you has been made-

by-you. (c). Aqhaya karamạt« chu-we, has been made by you, both

meaning “you made. We cannot say ay naharı těhě karimatu chuh. In the paradigms, I shall only give the

c. forms. The Auxiliary Verb may either precede or follow the Participle. Thus, the 54 kạr«mạtá chu-m or 54 TH chu-m kar«mat", but it is considered more elegant for it to precede, when in a sentence, and not standing by itself. Thus, a on aina mě chu-m gare karamật", I have built a house. When standing by itself, the Auxiliary Verb usually follows.

The following is the conjugation of this tense. Regarding the formation of the Adjective Past Participle, and its declension, see p. 29.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.

(a). Transitive verb, (c. Forms only). 'I have made,' Lit. 'he, she, it, etc., has (have) been made by me.'

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2 aqua ya karomatu chu-th. metien era karamąts« chě-th. fra'far fra kørimạti chi-th. adina ay karčmatse

che-th.

Plur.

3 a quien ga karumąt" chu-n. *** 17 kậromọtsk chă-n. *fufa faq kərimæti chi-n. aday oq karčmate® chě-n. 1 दु *

कमत kar mat chuh. | कर्मचू यह kpr mpts # cheh. करिमनि हिड् kar math chik. कर्यमन यह karāmate® chth. 2 कमन दुव kar moti chu-u°. कर्मचू चव kar mote : afrafa faa karimati chi-we. ang ara karčmatge

che-we.

chě-we.

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2.

(). Impersonal verb, (c. Forms only).
'I have laughed,' lit., 'it has been laughed by me.'
Sing. 1. septen ga asomato chu-m, I havo laughed.

do sq @sæmật" chu-th, thou hast laughed.

3. sant per Asømat" chu-n, he bas laughed.
Plur. 1. gan qovmat" chuk, we have laughed.

2. ya astmata chu-we, you have laughed.
3. Santos e asumate chu-kh, they have laughed.

Pronominal Suffixes. When the grammatical subject (i.e., the logical object) is a pronoun, it is frequently added in the shape of another pronominal suffix (nominative form). The following are the masculine forms used. Feminine forms can be easily made on the same principle :

aquim gug karmata chu-th-as, have been made-by thee- I,

thou hast made me. So what are karomats® chă-th-as, thou hast made me (fem.).

*fcafe faq karimato chi-th, thou hast made us (masc.).

There is no suffix for the first person plural. minn gare karomat" chu-n-as, he has made me. yang gera karomat“ chu-w-as, you have made me. Heyva kar®mæta chu-h-as, they have made me.

g chu-m-akh, I have made thee. करमतु kpromati

ya chu-n-akh, he has made thee.

chu-kh, we have made thee.

Lyrę chu-h-akh, they have made thee. When the logical object is the third person, the forms of the first and third persons are not used in this way. This applies also to the plural. We thus have only the two following forms:

Sgua chu-th-an, thou hast made him. kar#mat,

a chu-w-an, you have made him. For I have made him,' we must use the full pronoun; thus, map sul chu-m kậrumqtm, and so for the others.

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हिमव chi-m-aus, I have made you. fcHa s karimati, fara chi-n-awe, he has made

you. for chi-h-awe, they have made you. करिमति

fruę chi-th-akh, thou hast made them. karimati,

fugę chi-w-akh, you have made them.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb. .

(c. forms only).
I have become, &c.

रिमनि

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मनु दुस्

विमति दिए वृष्यमन पर bộumatı chu-s. boumate chě-s. bovémati chih. bověmatso chěh. मनु एच अमचू विमति शिव

वयमन धव bộvæmatu chu-kh. boul mats bovimat' chi-wa.

bõvěmatse chě-kh.

che-wo. मंचू पर विमति दिए

वृध्धमत्र पर bộvumąta chuh. (boulmatea chěh. bộvémati chih. bověmatso cheh.

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wuphyemats

chuh,

cheh.

chih. .

chah.

8. THE PERIPHRASTIC PLOPERFECT TENSE. This tense, also, is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the perfect, except that the past tense of the auxiliary verb is used instead of the present. It is unnecessary to give full paradigms, the following examples will suffice.

hastoy kąr«matīsu-m, I had made (him).

a legnagy karựmą te® agu-m, I had made (her).
affalfa alfoy karimati si-m, I had made (them, masc.).
qan qr94 karěmats āsa-m, I had made them, fem.).
qght step bộvæmật" īsu-s, I had become.

TAH slog wuphyāmat" īsu-s, I had flown.
Or, with double pronominal suffix.
que sigue karmat" īsu.th-as, thou hadst made me.

B. Imperative Mood.

1 (a). THE PRESENT TENSE.
The terminations are (viii. ii. 5).
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 h.

2 xq iv. 3 इन in.

3 To in. If the root ends in a consonant, the <h of the 2nd singular is elided (6). Thus, TT kar, make thou.

afrą kariv, make ye. afrą karin, let him make. afrą karin, let them make. From fe di, give, which does not end in a consonant, we get for 2nd singular fex dih, not fę di.

If the root of the verb contains the letter o ō, that it ö becomes ou, in the Imperative (7). Thus,

Tröz, stand, 3rd sing. Imperat. fiz rūzin. a töl, weigh,

area tülin. to poth, be fat,

पूठिन् prithin. So also, if the root contains tē, it becomes & i (7). Thus,ir nēr, go forth,

afrą nirin. ** çēk, fear,

wtracą stkin. or pēd, exude,

पौडिन् pidin. .

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