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7. PERFECT TENSE.
This tense is not described by Içvara-kaula. It is formed by conjugating the Adjectival Past Participle with the Present tense of the Auxiliary Verb. As in the case of the other past tenses, the construction is passive in verbs of the first conjugation, and active in verbs of the second and third. The pronominal suffixes are added as in the past tenses. They are added to the Auxiliary Verb, and not to the Participle. In the first conjugation they are suffixes of the agent case, and in the other two of the nominative case. As in the case of the Past tense, there are a, b, and c forms,-i.e., we may omit the suffixes at pleasure, except in the second person. Thus,
(a). áfa dqua
aqua e̟▼ tạm3 kar”mat" chuh, by him has been made,— (8). dfa dqda ya tạmi karmat" chu-n, by him has been made
a kar"mạt chu-n, has been made-by-him,—
all meaning' he has made.'
In the second person, only the b and c forms are used. Thus,—
(6). Ta đi qua thế kạn mạt chu-va, by you has been made
(c). aqua ya karɑmạt chu-w, has been made by you, both meaning 'you made.' We cannot say a g▼ tŏhế स्त्वय क॑ष॒म॑तु॒
karamatu chuh. In the paradigms, I shall only give the
The Auxiliary Verb may either precede or follow the Participle. Thns, क॑ष॒म॑नु॒ कुम् kar*mat* chu-m or कुम् केंम॑तु॒ chau-m kar*mate, but it is considered more elegant for it to precede, when in a sentence, and not standing by itself. Thus, AT ◄◄dą mě chu-m gar。 kar"mat", I have built a house. When standing by itself, the Auxiliary Verb usually follows.
The following is the conjugation of this tense. Regarding the formation of the Adjective Past Participle, and its declension, see p. 29.
A. FIRST CONJUGATION.
(a). Transitive verb, (c. Forms only).
'I have made,' Lit. ' he, she, it, etc., has (have) been made by me.'
Feminine. कर्यमत्र karēmats.
1 कर्मनु॒ कुस् kgr*mat* chu-m, करूमचू थम् kar matss chč-m | केरिमेति किम् karimati chi-m. कर्यमल यम् karčmalse
क॑र्मतु बुथ् kgr=mgt= chu-th. कम॑च॒ अथ् karimates chč-th. केरिमेति छिथ् karimati chi-th. कर्यमन्त्र यच् karēmalse
3 कर्मतु कुन् kgr*mat* chu-n. कमेचू चन् kar#matss chč-n. करिमेति छिन् karimati chi-n. कर्यमत्र यन् karēmaise chč-n.
कर्मच॒ यच् kar#mats# chčh. | क॑रिर्मति दिड् karimati chih. | कर्यमत्र यड् karčmatse chčh.
करिमेति वि karimati chi-wa. कर्यमन्न व्यव karčematse
क॑म॑तु॒ शुच् kar®mate chu-kh. कम॑च॒ यच् kar#mgtg" chč-kh. क॑रिम॑ति शिख् kgrimati chi-kch. कर्यमन्च यच् karčmatge chč-hah.
(b). Impersonal verb, (c. Forms only).
'I have laughed,' lit., 'it has been laughed by me.'
When the grammatical subject (i.e., the logical object) is a pronoun, it is frequently added in the shape of another pronominal suffix (nominative form). The following are the masculine forms used. Feminine forms can be easily made on the same principle :
aqda qaq kar"mạt” chu-th-as, have been made-by thee-I, thou hast made me.
So deda qua kar”mats* chè-th-as, thou hast made me (fem.). afcúfa fæq karimati chi-th, thou hast made us (masc.). There is no suffix for the first person plural.
dua ya kar"mạt” chu-n-as, he has made me.
karmat” chu-w-as, you have made me. ■ ▼▼ kar▪mạt chu-h-as, they have made me.
chu-m-akh, I have made thee.
chu-n-akh, he has made thee. chu-kh, we have made thee.
chu-h-akh, they have made thee.
When the logical object is the third person, the forms of the first and third persons are not used in this way. This applies also to the plural. We thus have only the two following forms:
For I have made him,' we must use the full pronoun; thus, KY
➡qda suh chu-m kar"mạt”, and so for the others.
मिव chi-m-aws, I have made you. करिमेति ( karimati, 2 दिनव chi-n-awe, he has made you.
böv"mata chuh. | bövūmatgs chěh.bövimati chih. | bövëmatss chčh.
C. THIRD CONJUGATION.
This tense, also, is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the perfect, except that the past tense of the auxiliary verb is used instead of the present. It is unnecessary to give full paradigms, the following examples will suffice.
dada aq kar”mat" ōsu-m, I had made (him).
affa alfe karimati asi-m, I had made (them, masc.).
a4¤¶ 19ų karĕmatso āsa-m, I had made (them, fem.).
ada y bộv*mạt” ōsu-s, I had become.
guna dag wuphyōmat" ōsu-s, I had flown.
Or, with double pronominal suffix.
dada diqqu kar”mat" ōs"-th-as, thou hadst made me.
From fa di, give, which does not end in a consonant, we get for
2nd singular fe dih, not fa di.
If the root of the verb contains the letter ō, that ō becomes
So also, if the root contains e, it becomes i (7). Thus,—